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Neuroimaging endophenotypes in autism spectrum disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 August 2015

Rajneesh Mahajan*
Affiliation:
Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research (CNIR), Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Stewart H. Mostofsky
Affiliation:
Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research (CNIR), Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
*
*Address for correspondence, Rajneesh Mahajan, MD, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Center for Autism and Related Disorders, 3901 Greenspring Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA. (Email: mahajan@kennedykrieger.org)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response, and lead to the development of new therapies.

Type
Review Articles
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2015 

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