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Daily life impairments associated with childhood/adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as recalled by adults: results from the European Lifetime Impairment Survey

  • Herve Caci (a1), Philip Asherson (a2), Renato Donfrancesco (a3), Stephen V. Faraone (a4), Amaia Hervas (a5), Michael Fitzgerald (a6) and Manfred Döpfner (a7)...
Abstract
Introduction

The Lifetime Impairment Survey, conducted in Europe, assessed impairment and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, and experiences of ADHD diagnosis and treatment, as recalled by adults.

Methods

Adults with ADHD and without ADHD (control group) were invited to participate in an internet-based survey and report on their childhood experiences. History of ADHD diagnosis was self-reported. Groups were compared using impairment and symptom scales.

Results

Overall, 588 adults with ADHD and 736 without ADHD participated. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age at diagnosis of ADHD was 20.0 (12.6) years (median 18.0) following consultation with 3.8 (5.1) doctors (median 2) over 44.6 (69.3) months (median 17.0). A total of 64.1% (377/588) of adults with ADHD reported frustration or difficulties during the diagnostic process. The ADHD group had a higher mean (SD) score versus control for general (3.3 [1.2] vs 2.1 [1.2]; p < 0.001) and school impairment (2.8 [0.7] vs 2.3 [0.6]; p < 0.001) but not home impairment (2.1 [0.5] for both groups).

Discussion

The survey demonstrated that ADHD had a negative impact on all aspects of childhood investigated, as recalled by adults.

Conclusions

These data provide insights into childhood impairments and identify areas for improvement in the management and treatment of ADHD.

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Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: H. Caci, Pediatric Department, Hôpitaux Pédiatriques de Nice CHU-Lenval, 57, Avenue de la Californie, 06200 Nice, France. (Email: caci.h@pediatrie-chulenval-nice.fr)
Footnotes
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Authors Herve Caci and Manfred Döpfner contributed equally to this work.

The Lifetime Impairment Survey (LIS) was funded by the sponsor, Shire Development, LLC. The steering committee included the authors of this paper and Professor L Vlasfeld (Delft, the Netherlands), who the authors thank for assistance with the study design. The authors also thank Deanne Weber, PhD (Porter Novelli Public Services, Washington, USA) for study analyses and Tamzin Redston, PhD (Fishawack Communications Ltd, Abingdon, UK) for preparation of the study report and assistance with previous presentations of the LIS data (all funded by Shire AG, Switzerland). Under the direction of the authors, Alyson Bexfield, PhD, and Debby Moss, PhD, employees of Caudex Medical, Oxford, UK, provided writing assistance for this publication. Editorial assistance in formatting, proofreading, copyediting, and fact checking was also provided by Caudex Medical. Shire AG, Switzerland provided funding to Caudex Medical, Oxford, UK, for support in writing and editing this manuscript. Although the sponsor was involved in the topic concept and fact checking of information, the content of this manuscript, the ultimate interpretation, and the decision to submit it for publication in CNS Spectrums was made by the authors independently.

Footnotes
References
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CNS Spectrums
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