1.Tondo, L, Isacsson, G, Baldessarini, RJ. Suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder: risk and prevention. CNS Drugs. 2003;17:491–511.
2.Tondo, L, Baldessarini, RJ. Suicidal risk in bipolar disorder. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2005;2:55–65.
3.Baldessarini, RJ, Tondo, L, Davis, P, Pompili, M, Goodwin, FK, Hennen, J. Decreased suicidal risk during long-term lithium treatment: A meta-analysis. Bipolar Disord. In press.
4.Baldessarini, RJ, Pompili, M, Tondo, L. Bipolar Disorder. In: Simon, RI, Hales, RE, eds. American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Suicide Assessment and Management. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2006:277–299.
5.Goodwin, FK, Jamison, KR. Manic-Depressive Illness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990.
6.Kessler, RC, Chiu, WT, Demler, O, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:617–627.
7.Ahrens, B, Müller-Oerlinghausen, B, Schou, M, et, al. Excess cardiovascular and suicide mortality of affective disorders may be reduced by lithium prophylaxis. J Affect Disord. 1995;33:67–75.
8.Harris, EC, Barraclough, B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:205–228.
9.Sharma, R, Markar, HR. Mortality in affective disorder. J Affect Disord. 1994;31:91–96.
10.Hawton, K, Arensman, E, Wasserman, D, et al.Relations between attempted suicide and suicide rates among young people in Europe. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:191–194.
11.Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Borges, G, Nock, M, Wang, PS. Trends in suicide ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States, 1990–1992 to 2001–2003. JAMA. 2005;293:2487–2495.
12.Goodwin, FK, Fireman, B, Simon, GE, Hunkeler, EM, Lee, J, Revicki, D. Suicide risk in bipolar disorder during treatment with lithium and divalproex. JAMA. 2003;290:1467–1473.
13.Dilsaver, SC, Chen, Y-W, Swann, AC, Shoaib, AM, Tsai-Dilsaver, Y, Krajewski, KJ. Suicidality, panic disorder and psychosis in bipolar depression, depressive-mania and pure mania. Psychiatry Res. 1997;73:47–56.
14.Baethge, C, Tondo, L, Bratti, IM, et al.Prophylaxis latency and outcome in bipolar disorders. Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48:449–457.
15.Faedda, GL, Baldessarini, RJ, Suppes, T, Tondo, L, Becker, I, Lipschitz, D. Pediatric-onset bipolar disorder: a neglected clinical and public health problem. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1995;3:171–195.
16.Blair-West, GW, Cantor, CH, Mellsop, GW, Eyeson-Annan, ML. Lifetime suicide risk in major depression: sex and age determinants. J Affect Disord. 1999;55:171–178.
17.Ösby, U, Brandt, L, Correia, N, Ekbom, A, Sparen, P. Excess mortality in bipolar and unipolar disorder in Sweden. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:844–850.
18.Jacobs, DG, ed. Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(11 Suppl):1–60.
19.Tondo, L, Albert, M, Baldessarini, RJ. Suicide rates in relation to health-care access in the United States. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:517–523.
20.Tondo, L, Baldessarini, RJ, Hennen, J, Floris, G, Silvetti, F, Tohen, M. Lithium treatment and risk of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:405–414.
21.Isometsá, ET, Henriksson, MM, Aro, HM, Lonnqvist, JK. Suicide in bipolar disorder in Finland. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1020–1024.
22.Arató, M, Demeter, E, Rihmer, Z, Somogyi, E. Retrospective psychiatric assessment of 200 suicides in Budapest. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988;77:454–456.
23.Rihmer, Z, Pestality, P. Bipolar II disorder and suicidal behavior. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999;22:667–673.
24.Ghaemi, SN, Rosenquist, KJ, Ko, JY, Baldassano, CF, Kontos, NJ, Baldessarini, RJ: Antidepressant treatment in bipolar versus unipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:163–165.
25.Perlis, RH, Stern, TA. Suicide. In: Stern, TA, Herman, JB, eds. Psychiatry Update and Board Preparation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2000:409–413.
26.Pirkis, J, Burgess, P. Suicide and recency of health care contacts. A systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 1998;173:462–474.
27.Andersen, UA, Andersen, M, Rosholm, JU, Gram, LF. Psychopharmacological treatment and psychiatric morbidity in 390 cases of suicide with special focus on affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104:458–465.
28.Miller, CL, Druss, B. Datapoints: suicide and access to care. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:1566–1567.
29.Baldessarini, RJ, Tondo, L, Hennen, J, Viguera, AC: Is lithium still worth using? An update of selected recent research. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2002;10:59–75.
30.Baldessarini, RJ, Tarazi, FI. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: Brunton, LL, Lazo, JS, Parker, KL, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2005:429–500.
31.Cipriani, A, Pretty, H, Hawton, K, Geddes, JR. Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1805–1819.
32.Fawcett, JA. Lithium combinations in acute and maintenance treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(Suppl 5):32–37.
33.Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. Arguments for the specificity of the antisuicidal effect of lithium. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;251(Suppl 2):72–75.
34.Ahrens, B. Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. Does lithium exert an independent antisuicidal effect? Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34:132–136.
35.Angst, F, Stassen, HH, Clayton, PJ, Angst, J. Mortality of patients with mood disorders: follow-up over 34-38 years. J Affect Disord. 2002;68:167–181.
36.Waddington, D, McKenzie, IP. Overdose rates in lithium-treated versus antidepressant-treated outpatients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;90:50–52.
37.Watson, WA, Litovitz, TL, Klein-Schwartz, W, et al.2003 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:335–404.
38.Greil, W, Kleindienst, N. The comparative prophylactic efficacy of lithium and carbamazepine in patients with bipolar I disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;14:277–281.
39.Bowden, CL, Calabrese, JR, Sachs, G, et al.A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:392–400.
40.Calabrese, JR, Bowden, CL, Sachs, G, et al.A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently depressed patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:1013–1024.
41.Meltzer, HY, Alphs, L, Green, Al, et al.Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia: International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:82–91.
42.Hennen, J, Baldessarini, RJ. Suicidal risk during treatment with clozapine: a metaanalysis. Schizophr Res. 2005;73:139–145.
43.Modestin, J, Dal Pian, D, Agarwalla, P. Clozapine diminishes suicidal behavior: a retrospective evaluation of clinical records. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:534–538.
44.Gardner, DM, Baldessarini, RJ, Waraich, P. Modern antipsychotic drugs: A critical overview. CMAJ. 2005;172:1703–1711.
45.Grunebaum, MF, Ellis, SP, Li, S, Oquendo, MA, Mann, JJ. Antidepressants and suicide risk in the United States, 1985–1999. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1456–1462.
46.Helgason, T, Tomasson, H, Zoega, T. Antidepressants and public health in Iceland. Time series analysis of national data. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184:157–162.
47.Gibbons, RD, Hur, K, Bhaumik, DK, Mann, JJ. The relationship between antidepressant medication use and rate of suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:165–172.
48.Khan, A, Khan, S, Kolts, R, Brown, WA. Suicide rates in clinical trials of SSRIs, other antidepressants, and placebo: analysis of FDA reports. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:790–792.
49.Fergusson, D, Doucette, S, Glass, KC, et al.Association between suicide attempts and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2005;330:396–403.
50.Gunnell, D, Saperia, J, Ashby, D. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from placebo controlled, randomized controlled trials submitted to the MHRA's safety review. BMJ. 2005;330:385–388.
51.Martinez, C, Rietbrock, S, Wise, L, et al.Antidepressant treatment and the risk of fatal and non-fatal self harm in first episode depression: nested case-control study. BMJ. 2005;330:389–396.
52.Hammad, TA, Laughren, T, Racoosin, L. Suicidality in pediatric patients treated with antidepressant drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:332–339.
53.Beasley, CM Jr, Dornseif, BE, Bosomworth, JC, et al.Fluoxetine and suicide: a metaanalysis of controlled trials of treatment for depression. BMJ. 1991;303:685–692.
54.Filteau, MJ, Lapierre, YD, Bakish, D, Blanchard, A. Reduction in suicidal ideation with SSRIs: a review of 459 depressed patients. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1993;18:114–119.
55.Lapierre, YD. Suicidality with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Valid claim? J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003;28:340–347.
56.Pedersen, AG. Escitalopram and suicidality in adult depression and anxiety. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:139–143.
57.Acharya, N, Rosen, A, Polzer, J, D'Souza, DN, Perahia, DG, Cavazzoni, P, Baldessarini, RJ. Duloxetine. Meta-analyses of suicidal behaviors and ideation in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Poster presented at: The 44th Annual Meeting of American College of Neuropsychopharmacoly (ACNP): December 11, 2005: Waikaloa, HI.
58.Fawcett, J. The detection and consequences of anxiety in clinical depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(Suppl 8):35–40.
59.Baldessarini, RJ, Pompili, M, Tondo, L, et al.Antidepressants and suicidal behavior: Are we hurting or helping? Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2005;2:73–75.
60.Berk, M, Dodd, S. Are treatment emergent suicidality and decreased response to antidepressants in younger patients due to bipolar disorder being misdiagnosed as unipolar depression? Med Hypotheses. 2005;65:39–43.
61.Faedda, GL, Baldessarini, RJ, Glovinsky, IP, Austin, NB. Treatment-emergent mania in pediatric bipolar disorder: a retrospective case review. J Affect Disord. 2004;82:149–158.
62.Baldessarini, RJ, Faedda, GL, Hennen, J. Risk of mania with antidepressants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:298–299.
63.Weinger, RD, ed. Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Recommendations for Treatment, Training, and Privileging. A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2001.
64.Huxley, NA, Parikh, SV, Baldessarini, RJ. Effectiveness of psychosocial treatments in bipolar disorder: state of the evidence. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2000;8:126–140.
65.Gray, SM, Otto, MW. Psychosocial approaches to suicide prevention: applications to patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(suppl 25):56–64.
66.Egan, MP. Contracting for safety: a concept analysis. Crisis. 1997;18:17–23.
67.Nilsson, A. Mortality in recurrent mood disorders during periods on and off lithium. A complete population study in 362 patients. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1995;28:8–13.
68.Angst, J, Sellaro, R, Angst, F. Long-term outcome and mortality of treated vs. untreated bipolar and depressed patients: a preliminary report. Int J Psychiatr Clin Practice. 1998;2:115–119.
69.Müller-Oerlinghausen, B, Berghofer, A, Ahrens, B. The antisuicidal and mortalityreducing effect of lithium prophylaxis: consequences for guidelines in clinical psychiatry. Can J Psychiatry. 2003;48:433–439.
70.Maj, M, Starace, F, Nolfe, G, Kemali, D. Minimum plasma lithium levels required for effective prophylaxis in DSM-III bipolar disorder: a prospective study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1986;19:420–423.