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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 27 March 2018
Through a new type of global microhistory, this article explores the remaking of the political system in Egypt before colonialism. I argue that developmentalism and the origins of Arabic monarchism were closely related in 1860s Egypt. Drawing on hitherto unknown archival evidence, I show that groups of Egyptian local notables (a‘yan) sought to cooperate with the Ottoman governor Ismail (r. 1863–1879) in order to gain capital and steam machines, and to participate in the administration. Ismail, on his side, secured a new order of succession from the Ottoman sultan. A‘yan developmentalism was discursively presented in petitions, poems, and treatises acknowledging the new order and naturalizing the governor as an Egyptian ruler. Consultation instead of constitutionalism was the concept to express the new relationship. The collaboration was codified in the Consultative Chamber of Representatives, often interpreted as the first parliament in the Middle East. As a consequence of the sultanic order and the Chamber, Egypt's position within the Ottoman Empire became similar to a pseudo-federal relationship. I conclude by contrasting different ways of pseudo-federalization in the global 1860s, employing a regional, unbalanced comparison with the United Principalities and Habsburg Hungary.
1 Attachment to undated letter from Sayyid Ahmad Agha Nafi‘, headman of Dandit, to Isma‘il Siddiq Pasha, 421/39, microfilm 199, al-Ma‘iyya al-Saniyya Turki (Turkish correspondence of the Governor's Entourage, henceforth MST), Dar al-Watha'iq al-Qawmiyya (National Archives of Egypt, Cairo; henceforth DWQ). Dandit is a small town in the Daqahliyya Province of Egypt. All translations are my own unless otherwise indicated. Arabic and Ottoman Turkish transliteration follows the simplified standard of the International Journal of Middle East Studies. Names of Ottoman elite individuals are written according to Turkish orthography.
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154 Arsan, Andrew, “The Strange Lives of Ottoman Liberalism: Exile, Patriotism and Constitutionalism in the Thought of Mustafa Fazıl Paşa,” in Isabella, Maurizio and Zanou, Konstantina, eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long Nineteenth Century (London, 2015), 153–70Google Scholar.
155 Ami Ayalon, “Shura,” in P. Bearman et al., eds., Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2d ed., Brill Online, 2014.
156 Sariyannis, Marinos, “Ottoman Ideas on Monarchy before the Tanzimat Reforms,” Turcica 47 (2016): 33–72, 58Google Scholar.
157 Diyaf, Ahmad ibn Abi, Consult Them in the Matter—A Nineteenth-Century Islamic Argument for Constitutional Government (Fayetteville, 2005)Google Scholar; Sönmez, “From Kanun-ı Kadim”; Hill, “Ottoman Despotism.”
158 There is a short series of articles entitled “Usul al-Hukm fi Nizam al-Umam,” from n. 422, Tasvir-i Efkar, 8 Jumada al-Ula 1283 (18 Sept. 1866), 4.
159 Tasvir-i Efkar, n. 439, 18 Rajab 1283 (27 Nov. 1866), 1–2.
160 Muhbir, 25 Sha‘ban 1283 (2 Jan. 1867), 3.
161 Nazan, Young Ottomans, 152–53, 165.
162 Canatar, Mehmet, “Şura-yi Devlet Teşkilatı ve Tarihi Gelişimi Üzerine Bazı Tespitler,” İlmi Araştırmalar 5 (1997): 107–39Google Scholar.
164 Hunter, Egypt, 52; Hamed and El-Dessouky, Large Landowning Class, 142–43.
165 Davis, Challenging Colonialism, 26–36.
166 Mitchell, Colonizing, 75–76.
167 al-Rafi‘i, ‘Asr Isma‘il, ii, 94–96.
168 Chalcraft, “Engaging the State,” 313–17. Cole provides details about later elections in guilds, in Colonialism and Revolution, 169–74.
169 French consul in Alexandria letter to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 30 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.
170 The decision was sent to the governorates on 22 October 1866. Amr Karim, p. 18 from qayd 24, microfilm 23, Ma‘iyya Saniyya ‘Arabi (Correspondence of the Governor's Entourage in Arabic, henceforth MSA), DWQ.
172 Musa, “Al-Dirasa.”
173 Yaycioglu, Partners.
174 Hunter, Egypt, 53.
175 al-Rafi‘i, ‘Asr Isma‘il, ii, 96–97.
176 Amr Karim, p. 18 from qayd 24, microfilm 23, MSA, DWQ.
177 “Khedive” (A. Mestyan), Encyclopaedia of Islam, 3d ed., Brill, forthcoming.
178 Hunter, Egypt, 54.
179 See, for instance, p. 90, qayd 40, microfilm 33, MSA, DWQ.
180 Ghalwash, “On Justice,” 528.
181 Chalcraft, “Engaging the State,” 309; Ghalwash, “On Justice.”
182 EzzelArab, “Fiscal and Constitutional Program.”
183 Benton, Search for Sovereignty, 237–38.
185 Kónyi, Manó, ed., Deák Ferenc beszédei, 6 vols. (Collected speeches of Ferenc Deak) (Budapest, 1903), ii, 397–403 Google Scholar.
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