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    Smalls, Krystal A. 2012. ‘We had lighter tongues’: Making and mediating Gullah/Geechee personhood in the South Carolina Lowcountry. Language & Communication, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 147.

  • Comparative Studies in Society and History, Volume 50, Issue 4
  • October 2008, pp. 949-980

The Illusion of Isolation: The Gullah/Geechees and the Political Economy of African Culture in the Americas

  • J. Lorand Matory (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2008

The Gullah/Geechee people are the locus classicus for the study of “African survivals” in North American culture. As such, they have been saddled with the duty to generate universal principles for the explanation of Africans’ acculturation, adaptation, and cultural resistance in the Western hemisphere, and they provide the main North American test case for explanatory principles generated elsewhere in the Americas. Yet, the well-studied Gullah/Geechee case, like the Afro-Atlantic world generally, holds untapped lessons about the historical genesis of cultures and ethnic identities worldwide. Is isolation the normal precondition and conservator of cultural and ethnic distinctiveness? And do the enslaved and their descendants choose their ancestors’ ways and identities mainly when and where isolation from the oppressor has made the oppressor's cultural alternatives unavailable? The existing literature on the Gullah/Geechee people of the southeastern U.S. coast and islands says “yes” to these questions, which also stand at the heart of both black Atlantic and global cultural history.

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William R Bascom . 1941. “Acculturation among the Gullah Negroes.” American Anthropologist 43, 1: 4350.

J. Lorand Matory . 1999. “The English Professors of Brazil: On the Diasporic Roots of the Yoruba Nation.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, 1: 72103.

J. Lorand Matory . 2000. “Surpassing ‘Survival’: On the Urbanity of ‘Traditional Religion’ in the Afro-Atlantic World.” Black Scholar 30, 34: 36–43.

Salikoko S Mufwene . 1991. “Some Reasons Why Gullah Is Not Dying Yet.” English World-Wide 12, 2: 215–43.

Salikoko S. Mufwene and Gilman Charles . 1987. “How African is Gullah, and Why?American Speech 62, 2: 120–39.

William L. Yancey , Eugene P. Ericksen , and N. Juliani Richard . 1976. “Emergent Ethnicity: A Review and Reformulation.” American Sociological Review 41, 3: 391403.

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Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • ISSN: 0010-4175
  • EISSN: 1475-2999
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