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Almost in Europe? How Finland's Embarrassing Entry into Eureka Captured Policy Change

  • VEERA MITZNER (a1)
Abstract

Common historical narratives of Finnish European policy emphasise the sudden and dramatic change of 1991–1995, when Finland, as a reaction to the collapse of the Soviet Union, rejected its previously cautious approach and wholeheartedly embraced the goal of joining a unified Europe. This article, however, shows that, already in the mid-1980s, the Finnish political and economic elites questioned the country's position in the Cold War order and took bold steps in order to forge closer relations with Western Europe. A key event was the struggle for membership in Eureka, a novel European project designed to enhance cooperation in high technology.

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1 Interview (Veera Mitzner) with Juhani Kuusi, member of the Finnish delegation at the conference, Helsinki, 28 Apr. 2008; Letter from Jermu Laine to Veera Mitzner, 10 Mar. 2008.

2 The article is mainly based on archive sources from the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The decision to join Eureka was prepared by a small circle of officials of the ministry and barely discussed within other institutions and government bodies. However, I also consulted a number of other Finnish archives (the Archive of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Helsinki; the Archive of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, Helsinki; Central Archives of Finnish Business Records, Mikkeli; The National Archives, Helsinki – the archive of the Finnish Business and Policy Forum, EVA, and the private papers of President Mauno Koivisto; Labour Archives in Finland, Helsinki – the private papers of former Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa), and conducted several interviews with public officials involved in the process.

3 See, for example, Seppinen, Jukka, Mahdottomasta mahdollinen. Suomen tie Euroopan Unioniin (Jyväskylä: Ajatus Kirjat, 2001), Suomen liittyminen Euroopan unioniin (Information package: Finland's accession to the European Union, Collection of the Library of Parliament), http://lib.eduskunta.fi/Resource.phx/kirjasto/yhteiskuntatieto/eu-suomen-liittyminen/index.htx (last visited 9 Jan. 2015).

4 Brooks, Stephen G. and Wohlforth, William C., ‘Power, Globalization, and the End of the Cold War: Reevaluating a Landmark Case for Ideas’, International Security, 25 (2000–2001), 553.

5 For an authoritative analysis of this development, see Honkapohja, Seppo, Koskela, Erkki A., Leibfritz, Willi and Uusitalo, Roope, Economic Prosperity Recaptured. The Finnish Path from Crisis to Rapid Growth (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2009).

6 For a general account on Finnish European policy, see Aunesluoma, Juhana, Vapaakaupan tiellä. Suomen kauppa- ja integraatiopolitiikka maailmansodista EU-aikaan (Helsinki: SKS, 2011); Paavonen, Tapani, ‘From Isolation to the Core: Finland's Position towards European Integration, 1960–1995’, Journal of European Integration History, 7 (2001), 5375; Ojanen, Hanna, ‘If in “Europe”, then in its “core”?’, in Kaiser, Wolfram and Elvert, Jürgen, eds., European Union Enlargement. A Comparative History (London: Routledge, 2004), 150–69. For general histories of Finland during the Cold War published in English, see Kirby, David, A Concise History of Finland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Ruddy, T. Michael, ed., Charting an Independent Course: Finland's Place in the Cold War and in U.S. Foreign Policy (Claremont, CA: Regina Books, 1998); Meindander, Henrik, History of Finland (London: Hurst, 2011); Jakobson, Max, ‘Substance and Appearance: Finland’, Foreign Affairs, 58 (1980), 1034–44; Törnudd, Klaus, ‘Finnish Neutrality Policy during the Cold War’, SAIS Review of International Affairs, 25 (2005), 4352; Tarkka, Jukka, Max Jakobson: Finnish Diplomacy in the Cold War (Helsinki: Otava, 2013).

7 Sandholtz, Wayne, High-Tech Europe: The Politics of International Cooperation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 121−5; Oshima, Keichi, ‘Technological Innovation and Industrial Research in Japan’, Research Policy, 13 (1984), 285301. For the earlier ‘gap’ debate in the late 1960s, see Veera Mitzner, ‘Research for Growth? The Contested Origins of European Union Research Policy (1963–1974)’, Ph.D. Thesis, European University Institute, 2013.

8 Saunier, Georges, ‘Eurêka: un projet industriel pour l'Europe, une réponse à un défi stratégique’, Journal of European Integration History, 12 (2006), 5774, here 65–6; Sandholtz, High-Tech Europe, 266–7.

9 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Brussels to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 25 Apr. 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, Ulkoministeriön arkisto (Archive of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs), Helsinki (hereafter UMA).

10 Saunier, ‘Eurêka: un projet industriel pour l'Europe’, 58–66. See also Saunier, Georges, ‘La genèse du premier programme-cadre européen. Un regard Français (1981–1984)’, in Defrance, Corine and Pfeil, Ulrich, eds., La construction d'un espace scientifique commun? La France, la RFA et l'Europe après le ‘choc du Sputnik’ (Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2012), 8195.

11 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Brussels to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 18 Apr. 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 19 Apr. 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

12 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Telephone interview (Veera Mitzner) with Seppo Lindblom 18 Mar. 2008.

13 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Copenhagen to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 13 June 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 28 May 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA. In 1985, EFTA members were Austria, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland.

14 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 386–90; Möttölä, Kari and Patomäki, Heikki, ‘Introduction: The EFTA Countries Engaging in Cost-Benefit Analysis’, in Möttölä, Kari and Patomäki, Heikki, eds., Facing the Change in Europe. EFTA Countries’ Integration Strategies (Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1989), vii–viii.

15 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 10 June 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

16 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

17 Peterson, John and Sharp, Margaret, Technology Policy in the European Union (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998), 98−9.

18 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

19 Cable from the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, to the Finnish delegations in Athens, Bonn, The Hague, Copenhagen, London, Paris and Rome, 1 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

20 Cable from the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, to the Finnish delegations in Bern, Oslo, Stockholm and Vienna, 3 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

21 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Stockholm to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 3 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Oslo to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 3 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Vienna to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 4 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Bern to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 4 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

22 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Copenhagen to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 3 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

23 Cable from the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki to the Finnish delegation in Paris, 4 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

24 Cb Minutes of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Finnish government 1985, UMA.

25 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 5 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; The French Foreign Ministry, Note for the minister's cabinet, Paris, 8 July 1985, 1930INVA/5196, Archives Diplomatiques, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Paris, (hereafter MAEF).

26 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 8 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

27 Memorandum of Veli Sundbäck, 9 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

28 Memorandum of Mauno Castrén, 10 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

29 Cable from the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki to the Finnish delegations in Athens, Bonn, Brussels, The Hague, Copenhagen, London, Paris, Rome, Bern, Oslo, Stockholm, Wien, Madrid and Lisbon, 10 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

30 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Brussels to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 11 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

31 Laine, Jermu, Kaupallisen lännettymisajan lyhyt historia (Cosmoprint: Helsinki, 2006), 191; Suomi, Juhani, Epävarmuuden vuodet. Mauno Koiviston aika 1984−1986. (Otava: Helsinki, 2006), 365. Meeting with Foreign Minister Väyrynen in Helsinki on 30 July, Roland Dumas told him that the decision to invite Finland had been made by France, ‘through a personal intervention of President Mitterrand’. Cable from the French delegation in Helsinki to the Foreign Ministry, Paris, 31 July 1985, 1930INVA/5196, MAEF.

32 Letter from Jermu Laine to Veera Mitzner, 10 Mar. 2008.

33 Letter from President Mauno Koivisto to President François Mitterrand, 9 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

34 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Paris to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 10 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

35 Memorandum of Veli Sundbäck 12 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Interview (Juhana Aunesluoma and Veera Mitzner) with Veli Sundbäck, Espoo, 17 Oct. 2007.

36 Cable from the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki to the Finnish delegations in Paris and Brussels, 13 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

37 Jakobson, ‘Substance and Appearance: Finland’, 1034–44; Törnudd, ‘Finnish Neutrality Policy during the Cold War’, 43–52; Tarkka, Max Jakobson: Finnish Diplomacy in the Cold War, 144–59; Kallenautio, Jorma, Suomi kylmän rauhan maailmassa (Helsinki: SKS, 2005), 267–91.

38 Antola, Esko, ‘The End of Pragmatism: Political Foundations of the Finnish Integration Policy under Stress’, Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1991 (Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1991), 1722, here 17.

39 On the dilemmas of neutrality and regional integration in general, see Hakovirta, Harto, East-West Conflict and European Neutrality (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 121–42.

40 Membership in the EEC was clearly out of the question during the entire Cold War period, and the free trade agreement, concluded between Finland and the Community in 1973, evoked a lengthy political struggle in the face of the Soviet opposition and the negative attitudes of some Finnish political parties. Even in the EFTA, in which they participated after 1961, around one year after its establishment, the Finns were sheltered by a specific construction called FINEFTA. Finland also declined the offer of the Marshall aid in 1947 and did not officially join the OEEC (OECD) until 1969. Membership in the Council of Europe was considered particularly sensitive and delayed until 1989.

41 Hakala, Johanna, ‘Internationalization of Science. Views of the Scientific Elite in Finland’, Science Studies, 11 (1998), 5274, here 57; Keränen, Heikki, Länsieurooppalainen tutkimus- ja teknologiayhteistyö ja Suomi (Helsinki: Teollisuuden Keskusliitto ja Metalliteollisuuden Keskusliitto, 1986), 113–4.

42 Autio-Sarasmo, Sari, ‘Knowledge through the Iron Curtain. Soviet Scientific-Technical Cooperation with Finland and West Germany’, in Autio-Sarasmo, Sari and Miklóssy, Katalin, eds., Reassessing Cold War in Europe (New York: Routledge, 2011), 70; Jauho, Pekka, Ensin kielsin konditionaalin (Helsinki: Terra Cognita, 1999), 198−9, 215; Interview with Pekka Jauho, (Veera Mitzner), Espoo, 19 Feb. 2008.

43 On IIASA, see Riska-Campbell, Leena, Bridging East and West: The Establishment of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in the United States Foreign Policy of Bridge Building, 1964–1972 (Helsinki: Finnish Society of Science and Letters, 2011).

44 For a historical overview of Western European technological cooperation, see Krige, John and Guzzetti, Luca, eds., History of European Scientific and Technological Cooperation (Luxemburg: European Communities, 1997).

45 For bilateral cooperation and contacts between individual universities and researchers, see Hietala, Marjatta, ‘The Development of International Contacts in the 20th Century’, in Tommila, Päiviö and Korppi-Tommola, Aura, eds., Research in Finland – A History (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 2008), 139–46.

46 Virtanen, Pekka, ‘Suomen osallistuminen Länsi-Euroopan teknologiseen yhteistyöhön: länsieurooppalainen kehitys ja Suomen tutkimuspolitiikka’, Ulkopolitiikka, 4 (1986), 1836.

47 Memorandum of Paavo Kaarlehto, 2 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

48 For the history of COST, see Mitzner, ‘Research for Growth?’, 175–202.

49 Virtanen, ‘Suomen osallistuminen Länsi-Euroopan teknologiseen yhteistyöhön’, 28.

50 Ibid. 27.

51 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 289.

52 Ormala, Erkki, ‘Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in Finland’, in Larédo, Philippe and Mustar, Philippe, eds., Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2001), 326.

53 Kuusi, Juhani, ‘Teknologia-Suomi 20 vuotta’, in Tala, Martti and von Bell, Claes, eds., Ensin meitä ei uskottu. Tositarinoita suomalaisesta tietotekniikasta 1983−2003 (Helsinki: Tieturi, 2003), 19.

54 Lemola, Tarmo, ‘Tiede- ja teknologiapolitiikan muototutuminen’, in Tommila, Päiviö and Allan, Titta, eds., Suomen tieteen historia 4 (Helsinki: WSOY, 2002), 476; Ormala, ‘Science, Technology and Innovation’, 326.

55 Murto, Eero, Niemelä, Mika and Laamanen, Tapio, Altavastaajasta ykköskenttään. Suomen teknologiapolitiikan ja sen toimintaorganisaatioiden kehitysvaiheita 1960-luvulta nykypäivään (Helsinki: Kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriö, 2007), 130−2, 213–4, 288; Kuusi, ‘Teknologia-Suomi’, 20.

56 Ormala, ‘Science, Technology and Innovation’, 328.

57 The Government of Finland, ‘Account of Science Policy 1985’, 2304–19; The Government of Finland, ‘Account of Technology Policy 1985’, 2319–32, Parliamentary session 1985, Records, Parliament, Helsinki 1985 (VP 1985 ptk.)

58 Hakala, Johanna, ‘Finnish Science and Technology Policy in the Context of Internationalization and Europeanization’, in Edler, Jakob, Kuhlmann, Stefan and Behrens, Maria, eds., Changing Governance of Research and Technology Policy: The European Research Area (Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2003), 191; The Government of Finland, ‘Account of Science Policy 1985’, 2304–19, here 2318.

59 Memorandum of Veli Sundbäck, 8 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

60 Letter from Mauno Koivisto to François Mitterrand, 9 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

61 Jermu Laine, Kauppapolitiikka 4−5/1985. [Translation V. M.].

62 Clerc, Louis, ‘Reputation by Committee? Finland's Committee for International Information, 1988–1990’, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 9 (2014), 176210.

63 Interview (Juhana Aunesluoma and Veera Mitzner) with Veli Sundbäck, Espoo 17 Oct. 2007.

64 Cable from the Finnish delegation in Bonn to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 5 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

65 Väyrynen, Paavo, On totuuden aika. Tositarinoita ja muistikuvia Mauno Koiviston Suomesta (Helsinki: WSOY, 1993), 92.

66 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, 16 July 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA; Cable from the Finnish delegation in Brussels to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 11 July 1985 (11:20), EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

67 Briefing of the French Foreign Ministry, Paris, 27 Sept. 1983, 1930INVA/5196, MAEF; Memorandum of the French Foreign Ministry, 4 July 1983, 1930INVA/5196, MAEF; Cable from the French delegation in Helsinki to the Foreign Ministry, Paris, 17 Oct. 1984. 1930INVA/5169, MAEF.

68 Memorandum of the French Foreign Ministry, Paris, 14 Sept. 1984, 1930INVA/5169, MAEF.

69 Underlines in the original. A note of the French Foreign Ministry, Paris, 8 July 1985, 1930INVA/5169, MAEF. I am thankful to Louis Clerc for his help with interpreting the illegible handwriting.

70 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 350–2, 367.

71 Kallenautio, Suomi kylmän rauhan maailmassa, 461–2; Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 367–71.

72 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 368.

73 Suomi, Epävarmuuden vuodet, 445 [Translation V. M.]

74 Kontorovich, Vladimir, ‘Technological Progress and Research and Development’, in Ellman, Michael and Kontorovich, Vladimir, eds., The Disintegration of the Soviet Economic System (London: Routledge 1992), 230−1; Autio-Sarasmo, ‘Knowledge through the Iron Curtain’, 67.

75 Brooks and Wohlforth, ‘Power, Globalization, and the End of the Cold War’, 35–6; Westad, Arne Odd, ‘The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms’, Diplomatic History, 24 (2000), 551–65, here 558−60.

76 Rey, Marie-Pierre: ‘“Europe is our Common Home”: A Study of Gorbachev's Diplomatic Concept’, Cold War History, 4 (2004), 3365, here 50–1; cable from the Finnish delegation in Brussels to the Foreign Ministry, Helsinki, 14 Aug. 1985, EEC 12-2, Euroopan Yhteisöt, R-sarja 1985, UMA.

77 Hanhimäki, Jussi M., Scandinavia and the United States: An Insecure Friendship (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997), 161–3. A dramatic example was the presidential elections of 1982 where the Kremlin failed to secure the victory of its preferred candidate, Ahti Karjalainen. I am thankful to Kimmo Rentola for this point.

78 Memorandum of Eero Salovaara, 20 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

79 Koivisto, Mauno, Kaksi kautta. Historian tekijät (Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä, 1995), 172 [Translation V. M.].

80 Suomi, Epävarmuuden vuodet, 452.

81 Memorandum of Seppo Pietinen, 7 Oct. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Memorandum of Eero Salovaara, 20 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Memorandum of Veli Sundbäck, 3 Oct. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

82 Memorandum of Pertti Torstila, 7 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA; Memorandum of Eero Salovaara, 20 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

83 Memorandum of Charles Murto, 14 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

84 Memorandum of Eero Salovaara, 20 Nov. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

85 Suomi, Epävarmuuden vuodet, 369, 451.

86 Kalevi Sorsa, ‘Finland's foreign policy and technological integration’, Speeches 1985, The private papers of Kalevi Sorsa, The Labour Archives in Finland, Helsinki; The Parliamentary session of 1985, Records, The Parliament, Helsinki 1985, 3781.

87 Memorandum of Antti Turunen, 10 Dec. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

88 Memorandum of Juhani Suomi, 10 Dec. 1985, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

89 Peterson, John, High Technology and the Competition State. An Analysis of the Eureka Initiative (London: Routledge 1993), 68.

90 Ibid. 62.

91 Guzzetti, Luca, A Brief History of European Union Research Policy (Luxembourg: European Communities, 1995), 116–7; Sandholtz, High-Tech Europe, 259−62, 266–7; Braillard, Philippe and Demant, Alain, Eureka et l'Europe technologique (Bruxelles: Bruylant, 1991), 7980; Peterson, High Technology, 58.

92 Sandholtz, High-Tech Europe, 269−71.

93 Peterson, High Technology, 61.

94 Cable from Brussels to Helsinki, 24 Apr. 1985, EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

95 Memorandum of Ossi Sunell, from Paris to Helsinki, 16 July 1985. EC Eureka, 35–68, UMA.

96 Kalevi Sorsa, ‘Finland's foreign policy and technological integration’, Speeches 1985, the private papers of Kalevi Sorsa, The Labour Archives in Finland, Helsinki. [Translation V. M.]

97 Antola, Esko, ‘The End of Pragmatism: Political Foundations of the Finnish Integration Policy under Stress’, Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1991 (Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1991), 1722, here 18.

98 Antola, ‘The End of Pragmatism’, 17.

99 Seppo Lindblom, Suomen Sosiaalidemokraatti, 7 Nov. 1985.

100 Interview (Veera Mitzner and Juhana Aunesluoma) with Erkki Mäentakanen, Helsinki, 16 Jan. 2008.

101 For example the Finnish government decided to postpone the signature of the free trade treaty with the EEC in 1972 before the Kremlin clearly voiced its opposition. Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 256–65.

102 Kallenautio, Suomi kylmän rauhan maailmassa, 430–2.

103 Various statements of eyewitnesses in the Oral History Seminar at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, 23 Oct. 2014; Veera Mitzner, ‘A Disquieting Advance – Nordic Experiences of the European Community's “Relaunch” (1984–1988)’, paper presented at ‘Contradictions. Envisaging European Futures, The 22nd International Conference of Europeanists’ held at Sciences Po, Paris, July 2015.

104 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 401, 441.

105 Kallenautio, Suomi kylmän rauhan maailmassa, 463; Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 402; Blomberg, Jaakko, Vakauden kaipuu. Kylmän sodan loppu ja Suomi (Helsinki: WSOY, 2011), 119; Suomi, Juhani, Kohti sinipunaa. Mauno Koiviston aika 1986–1987 (Helsinki: Otava, 2008), 53.

106 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 423.

107 Koivisto, Kaksi kautta, 519.

108 Cable from the French delegation in Helsinki to Foreign Ministry, Paris, 9 Mar. 1989, 1935INVA/6259, MAEF. [Translation V. M.]

109 Report to Parliament by the Government on Finland's Stance on the Economic Integration of Western Europe, Address to the Parliament on 1 Nov. 1988 by Pertti Salolainen, Minister for Foreign Trade. Quoted in Esko Antola, ‘The Finnish Integration Strategy: Adaptation with Restrictions’, in Möttölä and Patomäki, Facing the Change in Europe, 63.

110 Turun Sanomat, 22 July 1988.

111 Press Release (UM), 22 July 1988, EC Commission, 35.20, UMA.

112 The official visit of the EC Commission president Jacques Delors to Finland, The dinner speech of Prime Minister Holkeri in Kesäranta, EC Commission, 35.20, UMA. [Translation V. M.]

113 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 414–7.

114 Väyrynen, Raimo, ‘Finland and the European Community: Changing Elite Bargains’, Cooperation and Conflict, 28 (1993), 3146, here 35.

115 A discussion on Eureka, 26 Aug. 1985 in Helsinki, For the Press, 210 Letters and Statements 1985, The Confederation of Finnish Industries, Central archive of Finnish Business Records, (ELKA), Mikkeli.

116 Häikiö, Martti, Sturm und Drang. Suurkaupoilla eurooppalaiseksi elektroniikkayritykseksi 1983–1991. Nokia Oyj:n historia II (Helsinki: Edita, 2001), 42, 56, 280−1.

117 Häikiö, Martti, ‘Nokia ja Suomen kansainvälistyminen teknologian näkökulmasta’, in Rusi, Alpo, ed., Ei enää erityistapaus. Suomen kansainvälinen asema kylmän sodan jälkeen (Helsinki: WSOY, 2003) 180, 183.

118 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 447–8.

119 Suomi, Epävarmuuden vuodet, 446; The Parliament of Finland, minutes of plenary sessions 1985, 2397−8. For media reports, see, for example, Helsingin Sanomat, 16 July 1985; Uusi Suomi, 13 and 17 July 1985; Talouselämä, 24/1985.

120 Note of the French Foreign Ministry, Paris, 8 July 1985, 1930INVA/5196, MAEF.

121 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 257–8, 489–501.

122 Ibid. 227–9.

123 Briefing of the French Foreign Ministry, Paris, 27 Sept. 1983, 1930INVA/5196, MAEF.

124 Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 229, 387–90.

125 Seppinen, Ilkka, Suomalaisen avaruustutkimuksen historia (Helsinki: Yliopistopaino, 2004), 207–15, 246, 262, 281–8.

126 Quoted in Suomi, Epävarmuuden vuodet, 441. [Translation V. M.]

127 Ibid. 440–1; Ojanen, ‘If in “Europe”’, 156.

128 For these events, see Aunesluoma, Vapaakaupan tiellä, 433–63; Rehn, Olli, ‘Odottavasta ennakoivaan integraatiopolitiikkaan? Suomen integraatiopolitiikka kylmän sodan aikana ja sen päätösvaiheessa 1989–92’, in Forsberg, Tuomas and Vaahtoranta, Tapani, eds., Johdatus Suomen ulkopolitiikkaan. Kylmästä sodasta uuteen maailmanjärjestykseen (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 1993), 166231.

129 Hakovirta, Harto, ‘Odota- ja –katso. Analyysi Suomen läntisen integraatiopolitiikan perusmallista’, in Hakovirta, Harto and Väyrynen, Raimo, eds., Suomen ulkopolitiikka (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 1975), 415−7.

130 Kansikas, Suvi, ‘Neuvostoliitto ja EEC – vihamiehistä yhteistyökumppaneiksi’, Idäntutkimus, 2 (2008), 3953.

131 Esko Antola, ‘The Finnish Integration Strategy: Adaptation with Restrictions’, in Möttölä and Patomäki, Facing the Change in Europe, 57.

132 Paavonen, ‘From Isolation to the Core’, 67.

133 Hakovirta, Harto, ‘The Nordic Neutrals in Western European Integration: Current Pressures, Restraints and Options’, Cooperation and Conflict, 22 (1987), 265–73.

134 Peterson and Sharp, Technology Policy in the European Union, 112.

135 Memorandum of Veikko Soralahti, 24 Apr. 1987, EC Eureka, 35−68, UMA.

136 Rey, ‘“Europe is our Common Home”’, 54.

137 Luke Georghiou, ‘Evolving Frameworks for European Collaboration in Research and Technology’, Research Policy, 30 (2001), 891−903, here 897.

138 Mitzner, ‘Research for Growth?’, 287.

I would like to express my gratitude to my colleagues in the ReImag research team at the University of Helsinki and the University of Turku, in particular Juhana Aunesluoma, Kari Möttölä and Louis Clerc, who kindly read and commented on a draft of this text. I also would like to thank Alanna O'Malley, Jacob Krumrey and others for the useful feedback I received for a much earlier version of the article at a seminar organised by Kiran Klaus Patel at the European University Institute in 2009.

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