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Axis Internationalism: Spanish Health Experts and the Nazi ‘New Europe’, 1939–1945


Many of the forms and practices of interwar internationalism were recreated under the auspices of the Nazi ‘New Europe’. This article will examine these forms of ‘Axis internationalism’ by looking at Spanish health experts' involvement with Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Despite the ambiguous relationship between the Franco regime and the Axis powers, a wide range of Spanish health experts formed close ties with colleagues from Nazi Germany and across Axis and occupied Europe. Many of those involved were relatively conservative figures who also worked with liberal international health organisations in the pre- and post-war eras. Despite their political differences, their opposing attitudes towards eugenics and the tensions caused by German hegemony, Spanish experts were able to rationalise their involvement with Nazi Germany as a mutually-beneficial continuation of pre-war international health cooperation amongst countries united by a shared commitment to modern, ‘totalitarian’ forms of public health. Despite the hostility of Nazi Germany and its European collaborators to both liberal and left-wing forms of internationalism, this phenomenon suggests that the ‘New Europe’ deserves to be studied as part of the wider history of internationalism in general and of international health in particular.

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1 The proceedings of the conference and a full list of delegates were published in the journal of the Italian tuberculosis federation in January 1942, based on the official report of the conference committee. ‘La fondazione dell'Associazione Internazionale contro la Tubercolosi’, Lotta Contro La Tubercuolosi, anno XIII, 3 (1942), 236–59. See also ‘L'associazione internazionale contro la tubercolosi’, Rivista Italiana d'Igiene, vol. XX, 1 (1942), 78–9.

2 Weindling, Paul, ed., International Health Organisations and Movements, 1918–1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Borowy, Iris, Coming to Terms with World Health: the League of Nations Health Organisation 1921–1946 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2009).

3 Browning, Christopher R., Genocide and Public Health: German Doctors and Polish Jews, 1939–41, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 3 (1988), 2136; Weindling, Paul, Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

4 Robert Edwin Herzstein, When Nazi Dreams Come True: The Third Reich's Internal Struggle over the Future of Europe after a German Victory (London: Abacus, 1982); Doel, Ronald E., Hoffman, Dieter and Krementsov, Nikolai, ‘National States and International Science: A Comparative History of International Science Congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and Cold War United States’, Osiris, 20 (2005), 4976; Harvey, Elizabeth, ‘International Networks and Cross-Border Cooperation: National Socialist Women and the Vision of a “New Order” in Europe’, Politics, Religion & Ideology, 13 (2012), 141–58; George Martin, Benjamin, ‘“European Literature” in the Nazi New Order: The Cultural Politics of the European Writer's Union, 1942–3’, Journal of Contemporary History, 48 (2013), 486508.

5 Steiner, Zara, The Lights that Failed: European International History, 1919–1933 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), ch. 7; Laqua, Daniel, ed., Internationalism Reconfigured: Transnational Ideas and Movements Between the World Wars (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011); Mazower, Mark, Governing the World: The History of an Idea (New York: The Penguin Press, 2012), ch. 5.

6 Mazower, Governing the World, 180–8.

7 Götz, Aly, Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War and the Nazi Welfare State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007); Tooze, Adam, The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (London: Penguin Books, 2007); Evans, Richard J., The Third Reich at War: How the Nazis Led Germany from Conquest to Disaster (London: Penguin, 2007), ch. 4; Mazower, Mark, Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe (London: Allen Lane, 2008).

8 Salewski, Michael, ‘National Socialist Ideas on Europe’, in Lipgens, Walter, ed., Documents on the History of European Integration. Volume 1, Continental Plans for European Union 1939–1945 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1984), 37178; Kletzin, Brigit, Europa aus Rasse und Raum: Die Nationalsozialistische Idee der Neuen Ordnung (Münster: LIT, 2000); Mazower, Hitler's Empire, ch. 11.

9 Rutz, Rainer, Signal: Eine deutsche Auslandsillustrierte als Propagandainstrument im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2007); Griffin, Roger, ‘Europe for the Europeans: Fascist Myths of the European New Order, 1922–1992’, in Feldman, Matthew, ed., A Fascist Century: Essays by Roger Griffin (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); Grunert, Robert, Der Europagedanke Westeuropäischer Faschistischer Bewegungen, 1940–1945 (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2012); Gutman, Martin, ‘Debunking the Myth of the Volunteers: Transnational Volunteering in the Nazi Waffen-SS Officer Corps during the Second World War’, Contemporary European History, 22 (2013), 585607. For the history of international and transnational fascism in the interwar period, see Bauerkämper, Arnd, ‘Interwar Fascism in Europe and Beyond: Toward a Transnational Radical Right’, in Durham, Martin and Power, Margaret, eds., New Perspectives on the Transnational Right (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 3966.

10 Exceptions include Mark Mazower's history of internationalism, which examines critiques advanced by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy (Mazower, Governing the World, 180–7.) In the field of health, a number of works have begun to place Nazi racial hygiene, eugenics and epidemic control in a transnational context including Weindling, Epidemics and Genocide; Turda, Marius and Weindling, Paul, ‘Blood and Homeland’: Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900–1940 (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007); Weiss-Wendt, Anton and Yeomans, Rory, eds., Racial Science in Hitler's New Europe, 1938–1945 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013).

11 Preston, Paul, ‘Franco and Hitler: The Myth of Hendaye 1940’, Contemporary European History, 1 (1992), 116; Jiménez, José Luis Rodríguez, De Héroes e Indeseables: La División Azul (Madrid: Espasa, 2007); Wingeate Pike, David, Franco and the Axis stigma (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

12 Janué i Miret, Marició, ‘La cultura como instrumento de la influencia alemana en España: la Sociedad Germano-Española de Berlín (1930–1945)’, Ayer, 69 (2008), 2145; Peñalba-Sotorrío, Mercedes, ‘German Propaganda in Francoist Spain: Diplomatic Information Bulletins as a Primary Tool of Nazi Propaganda’, Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies, 37 (2013), 4763.

13 Payne, Stanley G., Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008); Pike, Franco and the Axis Stigma.

14 Klaus-Jörg, Ruhl, Spanien in Zweiten Weltkrieg: Franco, die Falange und das “Dritte Reich” (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe, 1975); Bowen, Wayne H., Spaniards and Nazi Germany: Collaboration in the New Order (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000).

15 Palanca, José Alberto, Medio Siglo al Servicio de la Sanidad Pública (Madrid: Cultura Clásica y Moderna, 1963), 207–9.

16 Mesa, Jorge Molero and Jiménez Lucena, Isabel, ‘Salud y Burocracia en España. Los Cuerpos de Sanidad Nacional (1855–1951)’, Revista Española de Salud Pública, 74 (2000), 71; Rodríguez Ocaña, Esteban, Salud Pública en España: Ciencia, Profesión y Política, siglos XVIII–XX (Granada: Universidad de Granada, 2005), 109.

17 Lucena, Isabel Jiménez, ‘El Tifus Exantemático de la Posguerra Española (1939–1943): El Uso de una Enfermedad Colectiva en la Legitimación del “Nuevo Estado”’, Dynamis, 14 (1994), 185–98.

18 Weindling, Epidemics and Genocide, 323. In December 1941 the Spanish newspaper ABC claimed that a German researcher working in Seville had succeeded in developing a new form of typhus vaccine. See ‘La Medicina y los Médicos’, ABC, Dec. 1941, 12.

19 López, Primitivo de Quintana, Sociedad, Cambio Social y Problemas de Salud (Madrid: Real Academia Nacional de Medicina, 1966), 206.; ‘La Medicina y los Médicos’, 12

20 Palanca, José, ‘Los Servicios Sanitarios Españoles a través de la Guerra de Liberación’, Actualidad Médica, 18 (1942), 112.

21 Molero-Mesa, Jorge, ‘Health and Public Policy in Spain during the Early Francoist Regime (1936–1951): The Tuberculosis Problem’, in Lowy, Iris and Krige, John, ed., Images of Disease: Science, Public Policy and Health in Post-War Europe (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Union, 2001), 141–66.

22 An example of the use of tuberculosis within the regime's international propaganda can be seen in ‘Spanish Letter’, The Tablet, 27 Aug. 1938, 11.

23 The Department of Health's official journal published three articles on European tuberculosis policies between 1938 and 1939: J.L'Eltore, ‘Notas sobre la Organización Antituberculoso en Italia’, Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública, 5 (1938), 338–41; Lloveras, José Argemi, ‘La Ley del Seguro Obligatorio contra la Tuberculosis en Italia’, Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública, 6 (1938), 373–8; Argemi Lloveras, José, ‘La Obra Antituberculosa Escolar en Hungría’, Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública, 7 (1939), 444–57.

24 Molero Mesa, Jorge, ‘Enfermedad y Previsión Social en España durante el Primer Franquismo (1936–1951). El Frustrado Seguro Obligatorio contra la Tuberculosis’, Dynamis, 14 (1994), 199225.

25 See, for example, the reports on visits of Italian experts to Spain and international participation in German conferences in Lotta Contro La Tubercuolosi, anno XII, 7 (1941), 448; ibid. anno XIII, 10 (1942), 271.

26 ‘La fondazione dell'Associazione Internazionale contro la Tubercolosi’, Lotta Contro La Tubercuolosi, anno XIII, 3 (1942), 236–59.

27 Ibid. 250; ‘L'associazione Internazionale contro la Tubercolosi’, Revista Italiana d'Igiene, vol. XX, 1 (1942), 78–9.

28 ‘La Fondazione dell'Associazione Internazionale contro la Tubercolosi’, Lotta Contro La Tubercuolosi, anno XIII, 3 (1942), 244

29 Ibid. 242

30 Ibid. 244.

31 Ibid. 241.

32 Ibid. 240–1.

33 Herren, Madeleine and Zala, Sacha, Netzwerk Aussenpolitik: Internationale Kongresse und Organisationen als Instrumente der schweizerischen Aussenpolitik, 1914–1950 (Zurich: Chronos, 2002), 216–7; Borowy, Iris, ‘Freundschaft, Feindschaft, Neutralität? Die LNHO des Völkerbundes und das Deutsche Reich während des Zweiten Weltkriegs’, in Eckart, Wolfgang U. and Neumann, Alexander, eds., Medizin im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Militärmedizinische Praxis und medizinische Wissenschaft im ‘Totalen Krieg’ (München: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2006) 34.

34 Kott, Sandrine, ‘Fighting for War or Preparing for Peace? The ILO duirng the Second World War’, Journal of Modern European History, 12 (2014), 359–76.

35 Case, Holly, Between States: The Transylvanian Question and the European Idea during World War II (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009), 151–74.

36 Palanca, Medio Siglo.

37 Académicos Numerarios del Instituto de España. 1938–2004, (Madrid: Instituto de España, 2005), 179.

38 Biraud to Gautier, 22 Mar. 1943 and 6 June 1943, Registry Files 1933–1947, Section 8a, Series 15197, R. 6118, League of Nations Archive, Geneva. On the important work of the Rockefeller Foundation with Spain's public health system from the First World War until 1941, see Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban, ‘La Intervención de la Fundación Rockefeller en la Creación de la Sanidad Contemporánea en España’, Revista Española de Salud Pública, 74 (2000); Weindling, Paul, ‘La Fundación Rockefeller y el Organismo de Salud de la Sociedad de Naciones: Algunas Conexiones Españolas’, Revista Española de Salud Pública, 74 (2000), 1526; Rodríguez Ocaña, Esteban, ‘Por Razón de Ciencia. La Fundación Rockefeller en España, 1930–1941’, in Campos Marín, Ricardo, et al., eds. Medicina y Poder Politico. XVI Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Historia de la Medicina (Madrid: SEHM, 2014), 473–8.

39 Girsberger, Hans, Who's Who in Switzerland, including the Principality of Liechtenstein (Zurich: Central European Times Publishing Company, 1955), 418.

40 Report on First Session of the International Anti-Venereal Disease Commission of the Rhine, 21 Dec. 1951, WHO Archive, (last visited 15 June 2015).

41 XIe Conférence de l'Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose, Copenhague, 3–6 Septembre 1950 (Copenhagen: A. Busck, 1951)

42 Campos, Ismael Saz, Las Caras del Franquismo (Granada: Editorial Comares, 2013), 5963.

43 Bowen, Wayne H., ‘Pilar Primo de Rivera and the Axis Temptation’, The Historian, 67 (2005), 6272.

44 Bowen, Spaniards and Nazi Germany.

45 Ibid. 146. Various correspondence with Aznar, Feb.–Oct. 1943, (9)17.11 51/10437, Delegación Nacional de Sanidad, Archivo General de la Administración (AGA), Alcalá de Henares.

46 Laín Entralgo, Pedro, Descargo de Conciencia (1930–1960) (Barcelona: Galaxia Gutenberg, 1976).

47 Rodríguez Ocaña, Salud Pública,109.

48 Molero Mesa and Jiménez Lucena, ‘Salud y Burocracia,’, 71.

49 Preston, Paul, Franco: A Biography (London: Fontana Press, 1995), 343505; Pérez, Rafael García, ‘La Idea de la “Nueva Europa” en el Pensamiento Nacionalista Española de la Inmediata Posguerra, 1939–1944’, Revista del Centro de Estudios Constitucionales, 5 (1990), 203–40.

50 Anales de la Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas, No. 74 (1997), 617–618; Palanca, Medio Siglo.

51 ‘Medicina y los Médicos’, 12

52 Laín Entralgo, Pedro, ‘En Memoria de Primitivo de la Quintana’, El País, 21 Sept. 1996, 26. Quintana did leave his role in the Department towards the end of the war but continued to hold important positions within the Spanish health system. For more on the post-war trajectory of Pedro Laín Entralgo, see Juliá, Santos, ‘¿Falange Liberal o Intelectuales Fascistas? ‘, Claves de Razón Práctica, 121 (2002), 413; Richards, Michael, After the Civil War: Making Memory and Re-Making Spain since 1936 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 1723.

53 Palanca, Medio Siglo, 208.

54 Ibid. 207–9.

55 Núñez Seixas, Xosé M., ‘“Russland War Nicht Schuldig”: Die Ostfronterfahrung der Spanischen Blauen Division in Selbstzeugnissen und Autobiographien, 1943–2004’, in Epkenhans, Michael, Förster, Stig and Hagemann, Karen, eds., Militärische Erinnerungskultur: Soldaten im Spiegel von Biographien Memoiren und Selbstzeugnissen (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöning, 2006); Núñez Seixas, Xosé M., ‘Testigos o Encubridores? La División Azul y el Holocausto de los Judíos Europeos: Entre Historia y Memoria’, Historia y Politica, 26 (2011), 259–90.

56 Entralgo, Laín, Descargo de Conciencia, 297–8.

57 Goode, Joshua, Impurity of Blood: Defining Race in Spain, 1870–1930 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009).

58 Álvarez Peláez, Raquel, ‘Eugenesia y Fascismo en la España de los Años Treinta’, in Huertas, Rafael and Ortiz, Carmen, eds., Ciencia y Fascismo (Madrid: Doce Calles, 1998), 7796; Turda, Marius and Gillette, Aaron, Latin Eugenics in Comparative Perspective (London: Bloomsbury, 2014). Many Spanish eugenicists were, however, influenced by German thinkers and ‘Nordic’ eugenics, most notably the psychiatrist Antonio Vallejo Nágera, who maintained extensive links with German psychiatry until well after the Nazi rise to power. See Richards, Michael, ‘Antonio Vallejo Nágera: Heritage, Psychiatry and War’, in Quiroga, Alejandro and Ángel del Arco, Miguel, eds., Right-Wing Spain in the Civil War Era: Soldiers of God and Apostles of the Fatherland, 1914–45 (London: Continuum, 2012).

59 Polo Blanco, Antonio, Gobierno de las Poblaciones en el Primer Franquismo (1939–1945) (Cádiz: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, 2006).

60 Bernabeu-Mestre, Josep and Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique, ‘At the Service of Spain and Spanish Children: Mother-and-Child Healthcare in Spain During the First Two Decades of Franco's Regime (1939–1963)’, in Lowry, Iris and Krige, John, eds., Images of Disease: Science, Public Policy and Health in Post-War Europe (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Union, 2001), 167–86.

61 On Italian eugenics and population policies, see Cassata, Francesco, Building the New Man: Eugenics, Racial Science and Genetics in Twentieth-Century Italy (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011).

62 See the various articles on Italian demographic policies published in the Falangist medical journal Ser and the Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública between 1939 and 1943.

63 Revista de Sanidad e Higiene Pública, 1 (1941), 92.

64 Bosch Marin, Juan, Como ha Resuelto la Italia de Mussolini el Problema Demográfico (Madrid: Dirección General de Sanidad, 1942).

65 Ibid. 16, 33.

66 Weindling, Epidemics and Genocide.

67 Jiménez Lucena, Isabel, El Tifus en la Malaga de la Postguerra: Un Estudio Historicomédico en torno a una Enfermedad Colectiva (Málaga: Universidad de Málaga, 1990); Jiménez Lucena, ‘El Tifus Exantemático’.

68 Hähner-Rombach, Syvelyn, ‘The Construction of the “Anti-Social TB-Patient” in the Interwar Years in Germany and the Consequences for the Patients’, in Borowy, Iris and Gruner, Wolf D., eds., Facing Illness in Troubled Times (Berlin: Peter Lang Verlag, 2005), 345–64.

69 Molero-Mesa, ‘Health and Public Policy in Spain’.

70 Examples of these shared assumptions can be seen in the articles by Primitivo de Quintana and Pedro Laín Entralgo, discussed in the paragraph below.

71 ‘La fondazione dell'Associazione Internazionale contro la Tubercolosi’, Lotta Contro La Tubercuolosi, anno XIII, 3 (1942), 250.

72 Jiménez Lucena, Isabel, ‘Medicina Social, Racismo y Discurso de la Desigualdad en el Primer Franquismo’, in Huertas and Ortiz, Ciencia y Fascismo, 111–27; Martínez-Pérez, José and Del Cura, Mercedes, ‘Bolstering the Greatness of the Homeland: Productivity, Disability and Medicine in Franco's Spain, 1938–1966’, Social History of Medicine, 28 (2015), 805–24. Francoist ‘social medicine’ should not be confused with the pre-war liberal movement of the same name. Despite its rhetoric, Francoist public health largely abandoned the focus on the social dimensions of health policy which had characterised the Republican era. See Marset Campos, Pedro, Sáez Gómez, José Miguel and Navarro, Fernando Martínez, ‘La Salud Pública durante el Franquismo’, Dynamis, 15 (1995), 211–50; Rodríguez Ocaña, Salud Pública, 89–111.

73 was a weekly supplement of the newspaper Arriba.

74 Primitivo de Quintana ‘Medicina y Estado’, , 1 Feb. 1942, 11.

75 Laín Entralgo, ‘Medicina y Política’, , 1 Feb. 1942, 3.

77 Gómez, Campos and Navarro, ‘La Salud Pública durante el Franquismo’; Margarita Vilar-Rodríguez and Jerònia Pons-Pons, ‘The Introduction of Sickness Insurance in Spain in the First Decades of the Franco Dictatorship (1939–1962)’, Social History of Medicine, 26 (2012), 267–87.

78 Arturo Álvarez Rosete, ‘Social Welfare Policies in Non-Democratic Regimes: The Development of Social Insurance Schemes in Franco's Spain (1936–50)’, Ph.D thesis, University of Nottingham, 2003.

79 Arnaldos Gimeno, Pedro, Los Seguros Sociales en los Estados Totalitarios (Madrid: Publicaciones del Instituto Nacional de Previsión, 1941).

80 Ibid. 351.

81 Quintana López, Sociedad, Cambio Social y Problemas de Salud, 201–8.

82 Anuario del Instituto Nacional de Previsión, 1943 (Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Previsión, 1944), 86–118.

83 Álvarez Rosete, Arturo, ‘¡Bienvenido, Mister Beveridge!’ El viaje de William Beveridge a España y la Previsión Social Franquista’, International Journal of Iberian Studies, 17 (2004), 105–16.

84 ‘El Director General de Sanidad ha Regresado de su Viaje a Italia y Alemania’, La Vanguardia, 16 Dec. 1941, 8; Palanca, Medio Siglo, 206–20.

85 Rebok, Sandra, ed., Traspasar Fronteras: Un Siglo de Intercambio Cinetífico entre España y Alemania (Madrid: CSIC, 2010); Rebok, Sandra, ‘Las Primeras Instituciones Científicas Alemanas en España: Los Comienzoes de la Cooperación Institucional en los Albores del Siglo XX’, Arbor, 187 (2011), 169–82.

86 López, Quintana, Sociedad, Cambio Social y Problemas de Salud, 201–8.

87 Weindling, Epidemics and Genocide, 221.

88 ‘Deutsch-Spanisches Kulturabkommen’, Madrid Botschaft 852, Politische Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts, Berlin.

89 Gómez-Escalanilla, Lorenzo Delgado, Imperio de Papel: Acción Cultural y Política Exterior Durante el Primer Franquismo (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1992), 197–9; Reggiani, Andrés H., ‘Medicina y Kulturpolitik en la Era del Nacionalsocialismo: La Academica Médica Germano-Ibero-Americana, 1936–1939’, in Carreras, Sandra, ed., Der Nationalsozialismus und Lateinamerica: Institutionen – Repräsentationen – Wissenkonstrukte (Berlin: Ibero-Amerikanische Institut, 2005); Janué i Miret, ‘La Cultura como Instrumento de la Influencia Alemana en España’.

90 See, for example, ‘Karl Megerle: positive themes for press and propaganda, 27 September 1941’, reproduced in Lipgens, Walter, ed., Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 1: Continental Plans for European Union, 1939–1945 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1984), 86–7.

91 Palanca, Medio Siglo, 219–20.

92 Olay to Palanca, 8 Oct. 1942, (14)1.15 74/16260, AGA. For background on the CIPETA scheme, see Jiménez, José Luis Rodríguez, Los Eclavos Españoles de Hitler (Barcelona: Planeta, 2002).

93 (14)1.15 74/16254 and 16255, AGA.

94 Olay to Palanca, 8 Oct. 1942, (14)1.15 74/16260, AGA.

95 Weindling, Epidemics and Genocide, 246.

96 Delgado Gómez-Escalanilla, Imperio de Papel, 208–9.

97 Janué i Miret, Marició, ‘“Woe Betide Us If They Win!”: National Socialist Treatment of the Spanish “Volunteer” Workers’, Contemporary European History, 23 (2014), 329–57.

98 For particular examples, see Königsberg hospital report, 9, C.2027,7,2, División Española de Voluntarios, Archivo General Militar, Ávila, and Faupel to Andres Amado, 17 Sept. 1943, Deutsch-Spanische Gesellschaft, R 64-I, 40, Bundesarchiv Lichterfelde.

99 Laín Entralgo, Descargo de Conciencia, 295.

100 Borowy, Iris and Hardy, Anne, eds., Of Medicine and Men: Biographies and Ideas in European Social Medicine Between the World Wars (Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 2008).

101 Lipgens, Documents on the History of European Integration, 9–10.

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