Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 30
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Blanco, Lyzette Nydegger, Liesl A. Camarillo, Giselle Trinidad, Dennis R. Schramm, Emily and Ames, Susan L. 2015. Neurological changes in brain structure and functions among individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse: A review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 57, p. 63.


    Green, Melissa J. Raudino, Alessandra Cairns, Murray J. Wu, Jingqin Tooney, Paul A. Scott, Rodney J. and Carr, Vaughan J. 2015. Do common genotypes of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on cognition in schizophrenia and healthy controls?. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 70, p. 9.


    Mangassarian, Selina Sumner, Lekeisha and O’Callaghan, Erin 2015. Sexual Impulsivity in Women Diagnosed With Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of the Literature. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, Vol. 22, Issue. 3, p. 195.


    Sandage, Steven J. Jankowski, Peter Crabtree, Sarah A. and Schweer, Maria 2015. Attachment to God, adult attachment, and spiritual pathology: mediator and moderator effects. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, Vol. 18, Issue. 10, p. 795.


    Sandage, Steven J. Long, Beverly Moen, Richelle Jankowski, Peter J. Worthington, Everett L. Wade, Nathaniel G. and Rye, Mark S. 2015. Forgiveness in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 71, Issue. 7, p. 625.


    Whalley, Heather C. Nickson, Thomas Pope, Merrick Nicol, Katie Romaniuk, Liana Bastin, Mark E. Semple, Scott I. McIntosh, Andrew M. and Hall, Jeremy 2015. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, Vol. 7, p. 476.


    Winter, Dorina Krause-Utz, Annegret Lis, Stefanie Chiu, Chui-De Lanius, Ruth A. Schriner, Friederike Bohus, Martin and Schmahl, Christian 2015. Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: Disturbed cognitive and emotional inhibition and its neural correlates. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Vol. 233, Issue. 3, p. 339.


    Caldwell, Jon G. Krug, Marie K. Carter, Cameron S. and Minzenberg, Michael J. 2014. Cognitive Control in the Face of Fear: Reduced Cognitive-Emotional Flexibility in Women with a History of Child Abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Vol. 23, Issue. 5, p. 454.


    Goodman, Jeanne Fertuck, Eric Chesin, Megan Lichenstein, Sarah and Stanley, Barbara 2014. The moderating role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between emotional maltreatment and borderline symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 71, p. 146.


    Green, Melissa J. Chia, T.-Yunn Cairns, Murray J. Wu, Jingqin Tooney, Paul A. Scott, Rodney J. and Carr, Vaughan J. 2014. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype moderates the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 49, p. 43.


    Kostolitz, Alessandra C. Hyman, Scott M. and Gold, Steven N. 2014. How Ineffective Family Environments Can Compound Maldevelopment of Critical Thinking Skills in Childhood Abuse Survivors. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 690.


    Prehn, Kristin Schulze, Lars Rossmann, Sabine Berger, Christoph Vohs, Knut Fleischer, Monika Hauenstein, Karlheinz Keiper, Peter Domes, Gregor and Herpertz, Sabine C. 2013. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 71.


    Stone, Michael H. 2013. The Brain in Overdrive: A New Look at Borderline and Related Disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 15, Issue. 10,


    Vega, Daniel Soto, Àngel Amengual, Julià L. Ribas, Joan Torrubia, Rafael Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni and Marco-Pallarés, Josep 2013. Negative reward expectations in Borderline Personality Disorder patients: Neurophysiological evidence. Biological Psychology, Vol. 94, Issue. 2, p. 388.


    Belford, Brent Kaehler, Laura A. and Birrell, Pamela 2012. Relational Health as a Mediator Between Betrayal Trauma and Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 244.


    FOSSATI, ANDREA 2012. Adult Attachment in the Clinical Management of Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 159.


    Liu, Na Zhang, Yalin Brady, Heward John Cao, Yuping He, Ying and Zhang, Yingli 2012. Relation Between Childhood Maltreatment and Severe Intrafamilial Male-Perpetrated Physical Violence in Chinese Community: The Mediating Role of Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder Features. Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 64.


    Renneberg, Babette Herm, Kerstin Hahn, Adam Staebler, Katja Lammers, Claas-Hinrich and Roepke, Stefan 2012. Perception of Social Participation in Borderline Personality Disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Vol. 19, Issue. 6, p. 473.


    Santorelli, Noëlle Woods, Amanda Carlin, Erica Marsic, Angelika and Kaslow, Nadine J. 2012. Attachment Mediates the Childhood Maltreatment–Daily Hassles Link in Low-Income, Suicidal African American Women. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Vol. 21, Issue. 7, p. 739.


    Spann, Marisa N. Mayes, Linda C. Kalmar, Jessica H. Guiney, Joanne Womer, Fay Y. Pittman, Brian Mazure, Carolyn M. Sinha, Rajita and Blumberg, Hilary P. 2012. Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents. Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 182.


    ×

A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: Effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance

  • Michael J. Minzenberg (a1), John H. Poole (a2) (a3) and Sophia Vinogradov (a2) (a3)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000163
  • Published online: 01 January 2008
Abstract
Abstract

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n = 43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n = 26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment–anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment–avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal–limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Michael Minzenberg, Imaging Research Center, UC-Davis School of Medicine, 4701 X Street, Sacramento, CA 95817; E-mail: michael.minzenberg@udcmc.ucdavis.edu.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. Abi-Saab , J. Fiszdon , G. Bryson , & M. Bell (2005). The implications of memory profiles in schizophrenia on vocational and neuropsychological functioning. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 173182.

H. R. Agrawal , J. Gunderson , B. M. Holmes , & K. Lyons-Ruth (2004). Attachment studies with borderline patients: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12, 94104.

P. C. Alexander (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 185195.

P. C. Alexander , C. L. Anderson , B. Brand , C. M. Schaeffer , B. Z. Grelling , & L. Kretz (1998). Adult attachment and long-term effects in survivors of incest. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22, 4561.

A. Arntz , C. Appels , & S. Sieswerda (2000). Hypervigilance in borderline personality disorder: A test with the emotional Stroop paradigm. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 366373.

A. Bartels , & S. Zeki (2004). The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. NeuroImage, 21, 11551166.

A. Bartels , & S. Zeki (2000). The neural basis of romantic love. NeuroReport, 11, 38293834.

M. D. Bauman , P. Lavenex , W. A. Mason , J. P. Capitanio , & D. G. Amaral (2004). The development of mother–infant interactions after neonatal amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 711721.

M. Beauregard , L. Malkova , & J. Bachevalier (1995). Stereotypies and loss of social affiliation after early hippocampectomy in primates. NeuroReport, 6, 2521–6.

A. Bechara , A. R. Damasio , H. Damasio , & S. W. Anderson (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 715.

A. Bechara , S. Dolan , & A. Hindes (2002). Decision-making and addiction: Part II. Myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward? Neuropsychologia, 40, 16901705.

R. H. B. Benedict , D. Schretlen , L. Groninger , & J. Brandt (1998). Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised: Normative data and analysis of inter-form and test–retest reliability. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12, 4355.

M. Best , J. M. Williams , & E. F. Coccaro (2002). Evidence for a dysfunctional prefrontal circuit in patients with an impulsive aggressive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 84488453.

A. Bifulco , P. M. Moran , C. Ball , & A. Lillie (2002). Adult attachment style. II: Its relationship to psychosocial depressive-vulnerability. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 6067.

P. A. Bloom , & I. Fischler (1980). Completion norms for 329 sentence contexts. Memory and Cognition, 8, 631642.

A. Borkowska , & J. K. Rybakowski (2001). Neuropsychological frontal lobe tests indicate that bipolar depressed patients are more impaired than unipolar. Bipolar Disorder, 3, 8894.

P. Brambilla , P. H. Soloff , M. Sala , M. A. Nicoletti , M. S. Keshavan , & J. C. Soares (2004). Anatomical MRI study of borderline personality disorder patients. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 131, 125133.

J. D. Bremner (2003). Long-term effects of childhood abuse on brain and neurobiology. Child and Adolescence Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 271292.

J. D. Bremner , P. Randall , E. Vermetten , L. Staib , R. A. Bronen , C. Mazure , (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse—A preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 2332.

J. D. Bremner , M. Vythilingam , E. Vermetten , S. M. Southwick , T. McGlashan , L. H. Staib , (2003). Neural correlates of declarative memory for emotionally valenced words in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to early childhood sexual abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 879889.

K. A. Brennan , & P. R. Shaver (1998). Attachment styles and personality disorders: Their connections to each other and to parental divorce, parental death, and perceptions of parental caregiving. Journal of Personality, 66, 835878.

C. R. Brewin , B. Andrews , & I. H. Gotlib (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 8298.

C. R. Brewin , B. Andrews , & J. D. Valentine (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748766.

B. S. Brodsky , & B. Stanley (2001). Developmental effects on suicidal behavior: The role of abuse in childhood. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 1, 331336.

J. M. Bruce , & R. J. Echemendia (2003). Delayed-onset deficits in verbal encoding strategies among patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 17, 622629.

P. W. Burgess , & T. Shallice (1996). Response suppression, initiation and strategy use following frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 34, 263273.

G. Bush , P. Luu , & M. I. Posner (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 215222.

C. L. Carey , S. P. Woods , J. D. Rippeth , R. Gonzalez , D. J. Moore , T. D. Marcotte , (2004). Initial validation of a screening battery for the detection of HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 234248.

C. Cavada , & W. Schultz (2000). The mysterious OFC. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 205.

R. C. Chan , E. Y. Chen , E. F. Cheung , & H. K. Cheung (2004). Executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Relationships to clinical manifestation. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 254, 256262.

D. Cicchetti (2004). An odyssey of discovery: Lessons learned through three decades of research on child maltreatment. American Psychologist, 59, 731.

D. Cicchetti , & F. Rogosch (1997). The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 797815.

D. Cicchetti , F. Rogosch , M. Lynch , & K. Holt (1993). Resilience in maltreated children: processes leading to adaptive outcome. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 629647.

C. Clark , M. Prior , & G. J. Kinsella (2000). Do executive function deficits differentiate between adolescents with ADHD and oppositional defiant/conduct disorder? A neuropsychological study using the Six Elements Test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 403414.

F. Collette , M. Van der Linden , G. Delfiore , C. Degueldre , A. Luxen , & E. Salmon (2001). The functional neuroanatomy of inhibition processes investigated with the Hayling task. NeuroImage, 14, 258267.

F. M. Corrigan , A. Davidson , & H. Heard (2000). The role of dysregulated amygdalic emotion in borderline personality disorder. Medical Hypotheses, 54, 574579.

A. S. David , A. Malmberg , L. Brandt , P. Allebeck , & G. Lewis (1997). IQ and risk for schizophrenia: A population-based cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 27, 13111323.

M. D. De Bellis , M. S. Keshavan , D. B. Clark , B. J. Casey , J. N. Giedd , A. M. Boring , (1999). A. E. Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology. Part II: Brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 12711284.

M .D. De Bellis , M. S. Keshavan , S. Spencer , & J. Hall (2000). N-Acetylaspartate concentration in the anterior cingulate of maltreated children and adolescents with PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 11751177.

J. Decety , & J. A. Sommerville (2003). Shared representations between self and other: A social neurocognitive view. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 527533.

J. M. De La Fuente , S. Goldman , E. Stanus , C. Vizuete , I. Morlan , J. Bobes , (1997). Brain glucose metabolism in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 31, 531541.

V. Delaney-Black , C. Covington , S. J. Ondersma , B. Nordstrom-Klee , T. Templin , J. Ager , (2002). Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 280285.

J. M. Difilippo , & J. C. Overholser (2002). Depression, adult attachment, and recollections of parental caring during childhood. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 663669.

W. M. Dinn , C. L. Harris , A. Aycicegi , P. B. Greene , S. M. Kirkley , & C. Reilly (2004). Neurocognitive function in borderline personality disorder. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 28, 329341.

N. H. Donegan , C. A. Sanislow , H. P. Blumberg , R. K. Fulbright , C. Lacadie , P. Skudlarski , (2003). Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: Implications for emotional dysregulation. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 12841293.

J. Dowson , E. Bazanis , R. Rogers , A. Prevost , P. Taylor , C. Meux , (2004). Impulsivity in patients with borderline personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 2936.

M. Driessen , J. Herrmann , K. Stahl , M. Zwaan , S. Meier , A. Hill , (2000). Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 11151122.

C. Durrett , T. J. Trull , & K. Silk (2004). Retrospective measures of childhood abuse: Concurrent validity and reliability in a nonclinical sample with borderline features. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 178192.

N. I. Eisenberger , M. D. Lieberman , K. D. Williams (2003). Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290292.

R. Elliot , R. J. Dolan , & C. D. Frith (2000). Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: Evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex 2000, 10, 308317.

W. Eng , R. G. Heimberg , T. A. Hart , F. R. Schneier , & M. R. Liebowitz (2001). Attachment in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The relationship among adult attachment styles, social anxiety, and depression. Emotion, 1, 365380.

A. S. Fleming , D. H. O'Day , & G. W. Kraemer (1996). Neurobiology of mother–infant interactions: Experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 673685.

A. Fossati , J. A. Feeney , D. Donati , M. Donini , L. Novella , M. Bagnato , (2003). Personality disorders and adult attachment dimensions in a mixed psychiatric sample: A multivariate study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 191, 3037.

R. C. Fraley , & K. E. Davis (1997). Attachment formation and transfer in young adults' close friendships and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 131144.

R. C. Fraley , & P. R. Shaver (1997). Adult attachment and the suppression of unwanted thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 10801091.

R. C. Fraley , & P. R. Shaver (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 11981212.

R. C. Fraley , & P. R. Shaver (2000). Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 132154.

R. C. Fraley , N. G. Waller , & K. A. Brennan (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350365.

W. G. Frankle , I. Lombardo , A. S. New , M. Goodman , P. S. Talbot , Y. Huang , (2005). Brain serotonin transporter distribution in subjects with impulsive aggressivity: A positron emission study with [11C]McN 5652. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 915923.

O. Gillath , S. A. Bunge , P. R. Shaver , C. Wendelken , & M. Mikulincer (2005). Attachment-style differences in the ability to suppress negative thoughts: Exploring the neural correlates. NeuroImage, 28, 835847.

J. M. Gold , M. S. Poet , C. M. Wilk , & R. W. Buchanan (2004). The family pictures test as a measure of impaired feature binding in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26, 511520.

J. Golier , & R. Yehuda (2002). Neuropsychological processes in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25, 295315.

S. Grant , C. Contoreggi , & E. D. London (2000). Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision-making. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11801187.

C. M. Grilo , L. Miguel Anez , & T. H. McGlashan (2002). DSM-IV axis II comorbidity with borderline personality disorder in monolingual Hispanic psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 190, 324330.

C. M. Grilo , C. A. Sanislow , & T. H. McGlashan (2002). Co-occurrence of DSM-IV personality disorders with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 190, 552554.

H. Gundel , M. F. O'Connor , L. Littrell , C. Fort , & R. D. Lane (2003). Functional neuroanatomy of grief: An FMRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 19461953.

P. D. Harvey , J. Lombardi , M. M. Kincaid , M. Parrella , L. White , P. Powchik , (1995). Cognitive functioning in chronically hospitalized schizophrenic patients: Age-related changes and age disorientation as a predictor of impairment. Schizophrenia Research, 17, 1524.

C. Hazan , & L. M. Diamond (2000). The place of attachment in human mating. Review of General Psychology, 4, 186204.

E. A. Hazlett , A. S. New , R. Newmark , M. M. Haznedar , J. N. Lo , L. J. Speiser , A. D. Chen , (2005). Reduced anterior and posterior cingulate gray matter in borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 614623.

A. Henik , & R. Salo (2004). Schizophrenia and the Stroop effect. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Review, 3, 4259.

B. P. Hermann , M. Seidenberg , A. Haltiner , & A. R. Wyler (1992). Adequacy of language function and verbal memory performance in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Cortex, 28, 423433.

S. C. Herpertz , T. M. Dietrich , B. Wenning , T. Krings , S. G. Erberich , K. Willmes , (2001). Evidence of abnormal amygdala functioning in borderline personality disorder: A functional MRI study. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 292298.

N. M. Hochhausen , A. R. Lorenz , & J. P. Newman (2002). Specifying the impulsivity of female inmates with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 495501.

M. A. Hofer (1996). Multiple regulators of ultrasonic vocalization in the infant rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 203217.

T. R. Insel , & L. J. Young (2001). The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 129136.

C. H. John (1988). Emotionality ratings and free-association norms of 240 emotional and non-emotional words. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 4970.

F. D. Juengling , C. Schmahl , B. Heflinger , D. Ebert , J. D. Bremner , J. Gostomzyk , (2003). Positron emission tomography in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 37, 109115.

M. J. Kane , & R. W. Engle (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: An individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 637671.

K. Kendall-Tackett , & K. Becker-Blease (2004). The importance of retrospective findings in child maltreatment research. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28, 723727.

K. S. Kendler , C. M. Bulik , J. Silberg , J. M. Hettema , J. Myers , & C. A. Prescott (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: An epidemiological and cotwin control analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 953959.

L. Korfine , & J. M. Hooley (2000). Directed forgetting of emotional stimuli in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 214221.

H. J. Kunert , H. W. Druecke , H. Sass , & S. C. Herpertz (2004). Frontal lobe dysfunctions in borderline personality disorder? Neuropsychological findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 497509.

J. E. Kurtz , & L. C. Morey (1999). Verbal memory dysfunction in depressed outpatients with and without borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 141156.

C. Lange , L. Kracht , K. Herholz , U. Sachsse , & E. Irle (2005). Reduced glucose metabolism in temporo-parietal cortices of women with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 139, 115126.

J. F. Leckman , & A. E. Herman (2002). Maternal behavior and developmental psychopathology. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 2743.

E. Leibenluft , M. I. Gobbini , T. Harrison , & J. V. Haxby (2004). Mothers' neural activation in response to pictures of their children and other children. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 225232.

M. F. Lenzenweger , J. F. Clarkin , E. A. Fertuck , & O. F. Kernberg (2004). Executive neurocognitive functioning and neurobehavioral systems indicators in borderline personality disorder: A preliminary study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 421438.

R. Letz , C. K. DiIorio , P. O. Shafer , K. A. Yeager , D. L. Schomer , & T. R. Henry (2003). Further standardization of some NES3 tests. Neurotoxicology, 24, 491501.

M. Leyton , H. Okazawa , M. Diksic , J. Paris , P. Rosa , S. Mzengeza , (2001). Brain regional alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping in impulsive subjects with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 775782.

J. P. Lorberbaum , J. D. Newman , A. R. Horwitz , J. R. Dubno , R. B. Lydiard , M. B. Hamner , (2002). A potential role for thalamocingulate circuitry in human maternal behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 431445.

P. D. MacLean (1985). Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 405417.

C. M. MacLeod (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 163203.

R. K. Mahurin , D. I. Velligan , & A. L. Miller (1998). Executive-frontal lobe cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: A symptom subtype analysis. Psychiatry Research, 79, 139149.

C. A. Mazas , P. R. Finn , & J. E. Steinmetz (2000). Decision-making biases, antisocial personality, and early-onset alcoholism. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 10361040.

G. McCarthy , & A. Taylor (1999). Avoidant/ambivalent attachment style as a mediator between abusive childhood experiences and adult relationship difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 465477.

T. H. McGlashan , C. M. Grilo , A. E. Skodol , J. G. Gunderson , M. T. Shea , L. C. Morey , (2000). The collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study: Baseline Axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 256264.

R. Meares , J. Stevenson , & E. Gordon (1999). A Jacksonian and biopsychosocial hypothesis concerning borderline and related phenomena. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 831840.

B. Meyer , P. A. Pilkonis , J. M. Proietti , C. L. Heape , & M. Egan (2001). Attachment styles and personality disorders as predictors of symptom course. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15, 371389.

K. D. Mickelson , R. C. Kessler , & P. R. Shaver (1997). Adult attachment in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 10921106.

M. Mikulincer , P. R. Shaver , & D. Pereg (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77102.

T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi , & M. Rutter (2005). Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 473481.

E. S. Monarch , A. J. Saykin , & L. A. Flashman (2004). Neuropsychological impairment in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 27, 6782.

N. Morton , & K. D. Browne (1998). Theory and observation of attachment and its relation to child maltreatment: A review. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22, 10931104.

R. T. Muller , & K. E. Lemieux (2000). Social support, attachment, and psychopathology in high risk formerly maltreated adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 883900.

A. Najib , J. P. Lorberbaum , S. Kose , D. E. Bohning , & M. S. George (2004). Regional brain activity in women grieving a romantic relationship breakup. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 22452256.

D. A. Nathaniel-James , P. Fletcher , & C. D. Frith (1997). The functional anatomy of verbal initiation and suppression using the Hayling Test. Neuropsychologia, 35, 559566.

D. A. Nathaniel-James , & C. D. Frith (2002). The role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Evidence from the effects of contextual constraint in a sentence completion task. NeuroImage, 16, 10941102.

E. C. Nelson , A. C. Heath , P. A. Madden , M. L. Cooper , S. H. Dinwiddie , K. K. Bucholz , (2002). Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: Results from a twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 139145.

A. S. New , M. S. Buchsbaum , E. A. Hazlett , M. Goodman , H. W. Koenigsberg , J. Lo , (2004). Fluoxetine increases relative metabolic rate in prefrontal cortex in impulsive aggression. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 176, 451–8.

A. S. New , E. A. Hazlett , M. S. Buchsbaum , M. Goodman , D. Reynolds , V. Mitropoulou , (2002). Blunted prefrontal cortical 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography response to meta-chlorophenyl piperazine in impulsive aggression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 621629.

J. B. Nitschke , E. E. Nelson , B. D. Rusch , A. S. Fox , T. R. Oakes , & R. J. Davidson (2004). Orbitofrontal cortex tracks positive mood in mothers viewing pictures of their newborn infants. NeuroImage, 21, 583592.

X. Noel , R. Sferrazza , M. Van Der Linden , J. Paternot , M. Verhas , C. Hanak , (2002). Contribution of frontal cerebral blood flow measured by (99 m)Tc-Bicisate SPECT and executive function deficits to predicting treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37, 347354.

K. N. Ochsner , & J. J. Gross (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 242249.

M. A. Oquendo , A. Krunic , R. V. Parsey , M. Milak , K. M. Malone , A. Anderson , (2005). Positron emission tomography of regional brain metabolic responses to a serotonergic challenge in major depressive disorder with and without borderline personality disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 11631172.

R. Penades , R. Catalan , S. Andres , M. Salamero , & C. Gasto (2005). Executive function and nonverbal memory in obsessive–complulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 133, 8190.

C. M. Perez , & C. S. Widom (1994). Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 617633.

N. M. Petry , W. K. Bickel , & M. Arnett (1998). Shortened time horizons and insensitivity to future consequences in heroin addicts. Addiction, 93, 729738.

A. Picardi , A. Toni , & E. Caroppo (2005). Stability of alexithymia and its relationships with the “big five” factors, temperament, character, and attachment style. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 371378.

M. I. Posner , & M. K. Rothbart (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441.

M. I. Posner , M. K. Rothbart , N. Vizueta , K. N. Levy , D. E. Evans , K. M. Thomas , (2002). Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 1636616370.

M. J. Raleigh , & H. D. Steklis (1981). Effect of orbitofrontal and temporal neocortical lesions of the affiliative behavior of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus). Experimental Neurology, 73, 378389.

J. K. Rilling , J. T. Winslow , D. O'Brien , D. A. Gutman , J. M. Hoffman , & C. D. Kilts (2001). Neural correlates of maternal separation in rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 146157.

C. S. Rodgers , A. J. Lang , C. Laffaye , L. E. Satz , T. R. Dresselhaus , & M. B. Stein (2004). The impact of individual forms of childhood maltreatment on health behavior. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28, 575586.

E. T. Rolls (2004). The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain and Cognition, 55, 1129.

M. K. Rothbart , & S. A. Ahadi (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 5566.

M. K. Rothbart , S. A. Ahadi , & D. E. Evans (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122135.

A. Roy (2001). Childhood trauma and hostility as an adult: Relevance to suicidal behavior. Psychiatry Research, 102, 97101.

O. Rumstein-McKean , & J. Hunsley (2001). Interpersonal and family functioning of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 471490.

N. Rusch , L. T. van Elst , P. Ludaescher , M. Wilke , H. J. Huppertz , T. Thiel , (2003). A voxel-based morphometric MRI study in female patients with borderline personality disorder. NeuroImage, 20, 385392.

A. M. Ruscio (2001). Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, 369387.

M. M. Sanchez , C. O. Ladd , & P. M. Plotsky (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 419449.

K. J. Saywitz , A. P. Mannarino , L. Berliner , & J. A. Cohen (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55, 10401049.

A. F. Schatzberg , J. A. Posener , C. DeBattista , B. M. Kalehazen , A. J. Rothschild , & P. K. Shear (2000). Neuropsychological deficits in psychotic versus nonpsychotic major depression and no mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 10951100.

C. Schmahl , & J. D. Bremner (2006). Neuroimaging in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 419427.

C. G. Schmahl , B. M. Elzinga , E. Vermetten , C. Sanislow , T. H. McGlashan , & J. D. Bremner (2003). Neural correlates of memories of abandonment in women with and without borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 142151.

C. G. Schmahl , E. Vermetten , B. M. Elzinga , & J. D. Bremner (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging of HPC and amygdala volume in women with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 122, 193198.

C. G. Schmahl , E. Vermetten , B. M. Elzinga , & J. D. Bremner (2004). A positron emission tomography study of memories of childhood abuse in borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 5965.

A. N. Schore (2001). Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, affect regulation and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 766.

A. N. Schore (2002). Dysregulation of the right brain: A fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 930.

J. Seltzer , C. Conrad , & G. Cassens (1997). Neuropsychological profiles in schizophrenia: Paranoid versus undifferentiated distinctions. Schizophrenia Research, 23, 131138.

L. J. Siever , M. S. Buchsbaum , A. S. New , J. Spiegel-Cohen , T. Wei , E. A. Hazlett , (1999). d,l-Fenfluramine response in impulsive personality disorder assessed with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 413423.

A. E. Skodol , L. J. Siever , W. J. Livesley , J. G. Gunderson , B. Pfohl , & T. A. Widiger (2002). The borderline diagnosis. II: Biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 951963.

P. H. Soloff , C. C. Meltzer , C. Becker , P. J. Greer , T. M. Kelly , & D. Constantine (2003). Impulsivity and prefrontal hypometabolism in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 123, 153163.

P. H. Soloff , C. C. Meltzer , P. J. Greer , D. Constantine , & T. M. Kelly (2000). A fenfluramine-activated FDG-PET study of borderline personality disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 540547.

J. Sprock , T. J. Rader , J. P. Kendall , & C. Y. Yoder (2000). Neuropsychological functioning in patients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 15871600.

L. R. Squire , C. E. Stark , & R. E. Clark (2004). The medial temporal lobe. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 279306.

M. B. Stein , C. Koverola , C. Hanna , M. G. Torchia , & B. McClarty (1997). Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Medicine, 27, 951959.

A. Stevens , M. Burkhardt , M. Hautzinger , J. Schwarz , & C. Unckel (2004). Borderline personality disorder: Impaired visual perception and working memory. Psychiatry Research, 125, 257267.

T. Styron , & R. Janoff-Bulman (1997). Childhood attachment and abuse: Long-term effects on adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 10151023.

T. Swirsky-Sacchetti , G. Gorton , S. Samuel , R. Sobel , A. Genetta-Wadley , & B. Burleigh (1996). Neuropsychological function in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 385396.

L. Tebartz van Elst , B. Hesslinger , T. Thiel , E. Geiger , K. Haegele , L. Lemieux , (2003). Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: A volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 163171.

L. Tebartz van Elst , T. Thiel , B. Hesslinger , K. Lieb , M. Bohus , J. Hennig , (2001). Subtle prefrontal neuropathology in a pilot magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in patients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 13, 511514.

M. H. Teicher , S. L. Andersen , A. Polcari , C. M. Anderson , C. P. Navalta , & D. M. Kim (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 3344.

F. A. Waters , J. C. Badcock , M. T. Maybery , & P. T. Michie (2003). Inhibition in schizophrenia: Association with auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Research, 62, 275280.

C. S. Widom (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160166.

C. S. Widom , K. G. Raphael , & K. A. DuMont (2004). The case for prospective longitudinal studies in child maltreatment research: Commentary on Dube, Williamson, Thompson, Felitti, and Anda (2004). Child Abuse and Neglect, 28, 715722.

J. M. G. Williams , A. Mathews , & C. MacLeod (1996). The emotional stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 324.

S. P. Woods , J. D. Rippeth , E. Conover , A. Gongvatana , R. Gonzalez , C. L. Carey , (2005). Deficient strategic control of verbal encoding and retrieval in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. Neuropsychology, 19, 3543.

S. P. Woods , J. C. Scott , M. S. Dawson , E. E. Morgan , C. L. Carey , R. K. Heaton , (2005). Construct validity of Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised component process measures in an HIV-1 sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 10611071.

M. C. Zanarini (2000). Childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23, 89101.

M. C. Zanarini , F. R. Frankenburg , D. B. Reich , M. F. Marino , M. C. Haynes , & J. G. Gunderson (1999). Violence in the lives of adult borderline patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 6571.

M. C. Zanarini , F. R. Frankenburg , A. A. Vujanovic , J. Hennen , D. B. Reich , & K. R. Silk (2004). Axis II comorbidity of borderline personality disorder: description of 6-year course and prediction to time-to-remission. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110, 416420.

M. C. Zanarini , L. Yong , F. R. Frankenburg , J. Hennen , D. B. Reich , M. F. Marino , (2002). Severity of reported childhood sexual abuse and its relationship to severity of borderline psychopathology and psychosocial impairment among borderline inpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 381387.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×