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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Burt, Keith B. Douglas Coatsworth, J. and Masten, Ann S. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

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    Tackett, Jennifer L. Herzhoff, Kathrin Balsis, Steve and Cooper, Luke 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.


A source, a cascade, a schizoid: A heuristic proposal from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

  • Mark F. Lenzenweger (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2010

It is argued that personality pathology represents the final emergent product of a complex interaction of underlying neurobehavioral systems as well as environment inputs. A number of factors may be involved in the developmental pathway and a cascading of effects is plausible, although a unifying cascade for all personality disorders is not likely. The present study suggests a possible cascade relevant to one personality disorder: schizoid personality disorder in emerging adulthood. In brief, it is hypothesized that the absence of a relationship characterized by a rich degree of psychological proximal process in early childhood, which is associated with nurturance and the facilitation of more complex development, predicts impairment in the actualization of the affiliation system (i.e., that system that facilitates interpersonal connectedness and social bonds in human beings and is under substantial genetic influence), and this impairment in the affiliation system predicts the appearance of schizoid personality disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood (late teens/early 20s), which persists over time into emerging adulthood. The impairment in the affiliation system is argued to proceed through childhood sociality as reflected in temperament on through adult personality as reflected in communal positive emotion. Furthermore, it is also hypothesized that the relationship between proximal processes and the affiliation system maintains irrespective of other childhood temperament factors that might adversely impact early parent/caregiver and child relations. The data for a preliminary illustration of this possible cascade are drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders, which is a prospective, multiwave study of personality disorders, personality, and temperament in a large sample of adults drawn from a nonclinical population.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Mark F. Lenzenweger, Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Science IV, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000; E-mail:
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Development and Psychopathology
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