Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-p6h7k Total loading time: 0.592 Render date: 2022-05-23T11:57:21.085Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 April 2011

Penelope K. Trickett*
University of Southern California
Jennie G. Noll
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Frank W. Putnam
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Penelope K. Trickett, School of Social Work, Montgomery Ross Fisher Building, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90899-0411; E-mail:


This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent posttraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives.

Special Section Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Armstrong, J. G., Putnam, F. W., Carlson, E. B., Libero, D. Z., & Smith, S. R. (1997). Development and validation of a measure of adolescent dissociation: The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 491497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnes, J., Noll, J., Putnam, F., & Trickett, P. (2009). Sexual and physical revictimization among victims of severe childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 412420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beaudoin, A. S., Carbonneau, N., Godbout, N., Bouchard, S., & Sabourin, S. (2007). Validation préliminaire du Questionnaire d'Activités et d'Attitudes à l'Égard de la Sexualité [Preliminary validation of the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire]. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 39, 301306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, R. Q. (1953). Convergence: An accelerated longitudinal approach. Child Development, 24, 145152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergman, B., & Brismar, B. (1994). Hormone levels and personality traits in abusive and suicidal male alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 311316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonanno, G. A., Colak, D. M., Keltner, D., Shiota, M. N., Papa, A., Noll, J. G., et al. (2007). Context matters: The benefits and costs of expressing positive emotion among survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Emotion, 7, 824837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonanno, G. A., Keltner, D., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., Trickett, P. K., LeJeune, J., et al. (2002). When the face reveals what words do not: Facial expressions of emotion, smiling, and the willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 94110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonanno, G. A., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., O'Neill, M., & Trickett, P. K. (2003). Predicting the willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse from measures of repressive coping and dissociative tendencies. Child Maltreatment, 8, 302318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bremner, D., Vermetten, E., & Kelley, M. E. (2007). Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol measured over 24 hours in women with childhood sexual abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 919927.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1987). Post-sexual abuse trauma: Data and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 367379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, E. B., & Putnam, F. W. (1993). An update on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation, 6, 1627.Google Scholar
Carrion, V. G., Weems, C. F., Ray, R. D., Glaser, B., Hessl, D., & Reiss, A. L. (2002). Diurnal salivary cortisol in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 575582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cattell, R. B., & Horn, J. L. (1978). A check on the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence with description of new subtest designs. Journal of Educational Measurement, 15, 139164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crittenden, P. M. (1992). Quality of attachment in the preschool years. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 209241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crittenden, P. M. (1997–2005). School-age assessment of attachment coding manual. Unpublished manuscript, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
DeBellis, M. D. (2001). Developmental traumatology: The psychobiological development of maltreatment children and its implications for research, treatment and policy. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 537561.Google Scholar
De Bellis, M. D., Chrousos, G. P., Dorn, L. D., Burke, L., Helmers, K., Kling, M. A., et al. (1994). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation in sexually abused girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78, 249255.Google ScholarPubMed
Dunlop, S. A., Archer, M. A., Quinlivan, J. A., Beazley, L. D., & Newnham, J. P. (1997). Repeated prenatal corticosteroids delay myelination in the ovine central nervous system. Journal of Maternal–Fetal Medicine, 6, 309313.Google ScholarPubMed
Dunn, L., & Dunn, L. (1981). Manual for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Hager, J. C. (2002). The Facial Action Coding System (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook.Google Scholar
Ellis, B. J., McFadyen-Ketchum, S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1999). Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: A longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 387401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farnfield, S., Hautamäki, A., Nørbech, P., & Sahhar, N. (2010). DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 313328.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). The stability of child abuse reports: A longitudinal study of the reporting behavior of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 30, 529544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedrick, W. M., Beilke, R. L., & Urquiza, A. J. (1987). Children from sexually abusive families: A behavioral comparison. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 391402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, J. B. (2001). Childhood sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adults: A review of and implications for STD/HIV programmes. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 12, 777783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grella, C. H., & Joshi, V. (2003). Treatment processes and outcomes among adolescents with a history of abuse who are in drug treatment. Child Maltreatment, 8, 718.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnar, M. R., Gonzalez, C. A., Goodlin, B. L., & Levine, S. (1981). Behavioral and pituitary–adrenal responses during a prolonged separation period in infant rhesus macaques. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6, 6575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harter, S. (1985). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 8797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the perceived competence scale for adolescence. Unpublished manuscript, University of Denver, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
Heim, C., Ehlert, U., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2000). The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, A. B. (1965). The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58, 295300.Google ScholarPubMed
Horowitz, L. (1995). Factors affecting utilization of treatment services by sexually abused girls. MS thesis, Catholic University of America.Google Scholar
Horowitz, L. (1998). The relationship of childhood sexual abuse to revictimization: Mediating variables and developmental processes. Doctoral dissertation, Catholic University of America.Google Scholar
Howard, K. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). The role of home-visiting programs in preventing child abuse and neglect. The Future of Children, 19, 119146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jareb, H. (1995). Developmental patterns of comorbidity in sexually abused girls. MS thesis, American University.Google Scholar
Kaufman, J., & Zigler, E. (1987). Do abused children become abusive parents? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 186192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, K. (2007). Parenting practice among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls and its impact on the abused girls' behavioral adjustment: Perspectives from a multigenerational, longitudinal study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Kim, K., Chung, I., & Trickett, P. K. (2007). Social support characteristics among mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse trauma. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, 35, 215237.Google Scholar
Kim, K., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2007). Psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls: Findings from a prospective, multigenerational study. Child Maltreatment, 12, 338351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, K., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2010). Childhood experiences of sexual abuse and later parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused and comparison girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 610622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, D. N., Arnow, B. A., Barkin, J. L., Dowling, F., Kocsis, J. H., Leon, A. C., et al. (2009). Early adversity in chronic depression: Clinical correlates and response to pharmacology. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 701710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46, 305315.Google ScholarPubMed
Krinsley, K. E., Weathers, F. W., Vielhauer, M. J., Newman, E., Walker, E. A., Kaloupek, D. G., et al. (1994). Manual for the evaluation of lifetime stressors. Boston: National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Behavioral Science Division.Google Scholar
Kwako, L. E., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 407422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Layne, C. M., Olsen, J. A., Baker, A., Legerski, J.-P., Isakson, B., Pašalić, A., et al. (2010). Unpacking trauma exposure risk factors and differential pathways of influence: Predicting postwar mental distress in Bosnian adolescents. Child Development, 81, 10531076.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Margolin, G., Burman, B., John, R. S., & O'Brien, M. (1990). The Domestic Conflict Index. Unpublished manuscript, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
Mausert-Mooney, R. (1992). Appeal and vulnerability patterns in girl victims of incest. Unpublished manuscript., Western Michigan University.Google Scholar
McCloskey, K. A., & Bailey, J. A. (2000). The ingergenerational transmission of risk for child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 10191035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendle, J., Turkheimer, E., & Emery, R. E. (2007). Detrimental psychological outcomes associated with early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Developmental Review, 27, 151171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Messman, T. L., & Long, P. J. (1996). Child sexual abuse and its relationship to revictimization in adult women: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 397420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 353361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 2545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. (1988). NIS-2: Second study of national incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Negrao, C., Bonanno, G. A., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2005). Shame, humiliation, and childhood sexual abuse: Comparing discrete and clinical theories of emotion. Child Maltreatment, 10, 350363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Negriff, S., Noll, J. G., Shenk, C. E., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Associations between nonverbal behaviors and subsequent sexual attitudes and behaviors of sexually abused and comparison girls. Child Maltreatment, 15, 180189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nemeroff, C. B., Heim, C. M., Thase, M. E., Klein, D. N., Rush, A. J., Schatzberg, A. F., et al. (2003). Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 1429314296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neumann, A., Ojong, T. N., Yanes, P. K., Tumiel-Berhalter, L., Daigler, G. E., & Blondell, R. D. (2010). Differences between adolescents who complete and fail to complete residential substance abuse treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 29, 427435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G. (2004, March). Long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on female development. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual International Congress on Woman's Mental Health. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Noll, J. G., Barnes, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2010, March). Sexual and physical (re) victimization of sexually abused females: The plausible role of global dysregulation. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
Noll, J. G., Horowitz, L. A., Bonanno, G. A., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 14521471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Newland, R., & Hulsmann, J. A. (2006, March). Teen pregnancy and sexual abuse. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Adolescents National Meeting, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
Noll, J. G., Schulkin, J., Trickett, P. K., Susman, E. J., Breech, L., & Putnam, F. W. (2007). Differential pathways to preterm delivery for sexually abused and comparison women. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 12381248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Shenk, C. E., Yeh, M. T., Ji, J., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Receptive language and educational attainment for sexually abused females. Pediatrics, 126, e615e622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., & Trickett, P. K. (2009, June). Accelerated puberty associated with childhood sexual abuse. Paper presented at the International Colloquium of Pubertal Development, Stress and Health, Bretesche, France.Google Scholar
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Harris, W. W., & Putnam, F. W. (2009). The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 424449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2000). Social network constellation and sexuality of sexually abused and comparison girls in childhood and adolescence. Child Maltreatment, 5, 323337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 575586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Susman, E. J., & Putnam, F. W. (2006). Sleep disturbances and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 469480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Zeller, M. H., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2007). Obesity risk for female victims of childhood sexual abuse: A prospective study. Pediatrics, 120, e61e67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olds, D., Henderson, C., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Prevention of child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78, 6578.Google ScholarPubMed
Olds, D., Kitzman, H. J., Cole, R. E., Hanks, C. A., Arcoleo, K. J., Anson, E. A., et al. (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on maternal life course and government spending: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics Adolescent Medicine, 164, 419424.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oviedo-Joekes, E., Marchand, K., Guh, D., Marsh, D. C., Brissette, S., Krausz, M., et al. (in press). History of reported sexual or physical abuse among long-term heroin users and their response to substitution treatment, Addictive Behaviors.Google Scholar
Pasquali, R., Cantobelli, S., Casimirri, F., Capelli, M., Bortoluzzi, L., Flamia, R., et al. (1993). The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in obese women with different patterns of body fat distribution. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 77, 341346.Google ScholarPubMed
Pence, B. W. (2009). The impact of mental health and traumatic life experiences on antiretroviral treatment outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 63, 636640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, F. W., Helmers, K., Horowitz, L. A., & Trickett, P. K. (1995). Hypnotizability and dissociativity in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 645655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, F. W., Helmers, K., & Trickett, P. K. (1993). Development, reliability, and validity of a child dissociation scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 731741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (1987). The psychobiological effects of child sexual abuse. New York: W. T. Grant Foundation.Google Scholar
Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (1993). Child sexual abuse: A model of chronic trauma. Psychiatry, 56, 8295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raison, C. L., & Miller, A. H. (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 15541565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reich, W. (2000). Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 5966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosen, G. M., & Davison, G. C. (2003). Psychology should list empirically supported principles of change (ESPs) and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages. Behavior Modification, 27, 300312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosmond, R. (2003). Stress induced disturbances of the HPA axis: A pathway to type 2 diabetes? Medical Science Monitor 9, RA35RA39.Google ScholarPubMed
Roth, A., & Fonagy, P. (2005). What works for whom?: A critical review of psychotherapy research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Rubin, D. M., O'Reilly, A. L. R., Luan, X., Dai, D., Localio, A. R., & Christian, C. W. (in press). Variation in pregnancy outcomes following statewide implementation of a prenatal home visitation program. Archives of Pediatrics Adolescent Medicine.Google Scholar
Russell, D. E. H. (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Schaie, K. W., & Hertzog, C. (1982). Longitudinal methods. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psychology. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Shenk, C. E., Noll, J. G., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). A prospective examination of the role of childhood sexual abuse and physiological asymmetry in the development of psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 752761.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sickel, A. E., Noll, J. G., Moore, P. J., Putnam, F. W., & Trickett, P. K. (2002). The long-term physical health and healthcare utilization of women who were sexually abused as children. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 583597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silverman, W. K., Ortiz, C. D., Viswesvaran, C., Burns, B. J., Kolko, D. J., Putnam, F. W., et al. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 156183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sternberg, E. M., & Gold, P. W. (2002). The mind–body interaction in disease. Scientific American, 12, 8289.Google Scholar
Susman, E. J. (2006). Psychobiology of persistent antisocial behavior: Stress, early vulnerabilities and the attenuation hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 376389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teutsch, S., & Harris, J. (2003). Introduction. In Haddix, A., Teutsch, S. & Corso, P. (Eds.), Prevention effectiveness (pp. 110). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Theodore, A. D., Chang, J. J., Runyan, D. K., Hunter, W. M., Bangdiwala, S. I., & Agans, R. (2005). Epidemiologic features of the physical and sexual maltreatment of children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115, e331e337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trickett, P. K. (1983). The interaction of cognitive styles and classroom environment in determining first-graders' behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 4, 4364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trickett, P. K., & Everett, B. (1988). Mothers' Developmental History Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
Trickett, P. K., McBride-Chang, C., & Putnam, F. W. (1994). The classroom performance and behavior of sexually abused females. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 183194.Google Scholar
Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., Reiffman, A., & Putnam, F. W. (2001). Variants of intrafamilial sexual abuse experience: Implications for short- and long-term development. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 10011019.Google Scholar
Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., Susman, E. J., Shenk, C. E., & Putnam, F. W. (2010). Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 165175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (1990–1993). Sexual abuse of females: Effects in childhood. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (1993). Impact of child sexual abuse on females: Toward a developmental, psychobiological integration. Psychological Science, 4, 8187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trickett, P. K., Reiffman, A., Horowitz, L. A., & Putnam, F. W. (1997). Characteristics of sexual abuse trauma and the prediction of developmental outcomes. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention (Vol. 8). New York: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
Udry, R. (1988). The Sexual Activity Questionnaire for Girls and Boys. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
van der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Toward a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 401408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westfall, J. M., Mold, J. & Fagnan, L. (2007). Practice-based research—“Blue Highways” on the NIH Roadmap. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 403413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 2. Childhood Sexual Abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 3446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, L. M. (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women's memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 11671176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., Anda, R. F., Dietz, W. H., & Felitti, V. (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 10751082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfe, V. V., Gentile, C., Michienzi, T., & Sas, L. (1991). The Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale: A measure of post-sexual-abuse PTSD symptoms. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 359383.Google Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *