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Lau, Jennifer Y.F. Belli, Stefano D. Gregory, Alice M. Napolitano, Maria and Eley, Thalia C. 2012. The role of children’s negative attributions on depressive symptoms: an inherited characteristic or a product of the early environment?. Developmental Science, Vol. 15, Issue. 4, p. 569.
Spatola, Chiara A. M. Scaini, Simona Pesenti-Gritti, Paola Medland, Sarah E. Moruzzi, Sara Ogliari, Anna Tambs, Kristian and Battaglia, Marco 2011. Gene-environment interactions in panic disorder and CO2 sensitivity: Effects of events occurring early in life. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 156, Issue. 1, p. 79.
Lau, J. Y. Britton, J. C. Nelson, E. E. Angold, A. Ernst, M. Goldwin, M. Grillon, C. Leibenluft, E. Lissek, S. Norcross, M. Shiffrin, N. and Pine, D. S. 2011. Distinct neural signatures of threat learning in adolescents and adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue. 11, p. 4500.
Barclay, Nicola L. Eley, Thalia C. Rijsdijk, Fruhling V. and Gregory, Alice M. 2011. Dependent negative life events and sleep quality: An examination of gene–environment interplay. Sleep Medicine, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 403.
Vendlinski, Matthew K. Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn Essex, Marilyn J. and Goldsmith, H. Hill 2011. Genetic risk by experience interaction for childhood internalizing problems: converging evidence across multiple methods. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 52, Issue. 5, p. 607.
Craske, Michelle G. Kircanski, Katharina Epstein, Alyssa Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich Pine, Danny S. Lewis-Fernández, Roberto and Hinton, Devon 2010. Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 93.
Franić, Sanja Middeldorp, Christel M. Dolan, Conor V. Ligthart, Lannie and Boomsma, Dorret I. 2010. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 49, Issue. 8, p. 820.
Lau, Jennifer Y.F. Goldman, David Buzas, Beata Hodgkinson, Colin Leibenluft, Ellen Nelson, Eric Sankin, Lindsey Pine, Daniel S. and Ernst, Monique 2010. BDNF gene polymorphism (Val66Met) predicts amygdala and anterior hippocampus responses to emotional faces in anxious and depressed adolescents. NeuroImage, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 952.
Hicks, Brian M. DiRago, Ana C. Iacono, William G. and McGue, Matt 2009. Gene-environment interplay in internalizing disorders: consistent findings across six environmental risk factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 50, Issue. 10, p. 1309.
Gregory, Alice M. 2008. Finding gene–environment interactions for anxiety. Psychiatry, Vol. 7, Issue. 12, p. 525.
Consistent evidence shows both genetic and stress-related risks on child and adolescent anxiety, yet few studies have considered the degree to which genetic effects are moderated by stress (gene–environment interaction). We used longitudinal data from both a child and adolescent sample of twins to examine three novel issues on the presence of gene–environment interaction on anxiety symptoms. First, we assessed moderation of genetic risks on anxiety symptoms by negative life events in each age group. Second, by distinguishing between “stable” and “age-specific” genetic factors, we explored the continuity of gene–environment interaction across time and/or its emergence at specific ages. Third, we compared the presence of gene–environment interaction across different symptom types (general, panic, social, and separation). Genetic effects on separation anxiety symptoms in childhood (mean age = 8 years, 6 months) and panic anxiety symptoms in adolescence (mean age = 15 years) increased across independent negative life events. Shared environmental effects on separation anxiety symptoms and nonshared environmental effects on general anxiety symptoms in adolescence were also moderated by negative life events. We interpret these preliminary findings tentatively in the context of gene–environment interaction on anxiety in general, and on early separation and later panic anxiety in particular.
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