This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
C. M. Adler , M. P. DelBello , K. Jarvis , A. Levine , J. Adams , & S. M. Strakowski (2007). Voxel-based study of structural changes in first-episode patients with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 776–781.
R. Adolphs (2002). Neural systems for recognizing emotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 169–177.
L. Altshuler , S. Bookheimer , M. A. Proenza , J. Townsend , F. Sabb , A. Firestine , (2005). Increased amygdala activation during mania: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1211–1213.
J. L. Armony , V. Corbo , M. H. Clement , & A. Brunet (2005). Amygdala response in patients with acute PTSD to masked and unmasked emotional facial expressions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1961–1963.
E. S. Barratt , M. S. Stanford , L. Dowdy , M. J. Liebman , & T. A. Kent (1999). Impulsive and premeditated aggression: A factor analysis of self-reported acts. Psychiatry Research, 86, 163–173.
M. G. Baxter , & E. A. Murray (2002). The amygdala and reward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 3, 563–573.
M. Best , J. M. Williams , & E. F. Coccaro (2002). Evidence for a dysfunctional prefrontal circuit in patients with an impulsive aggressive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 8448–8453.
N. Birbaumer , R. Veit , M. Lotze , M. Erb , C. Hermann , W. Grodd , (2005). Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 799–805.
R. J. Blair (2003). Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and neuro-cognitive substrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 358, 561–572.
R. J. Blair (2004a). The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Brain and Cognition, 55, 198–208.
R. J. Blair (2007). The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 387–392.
R. J. R. Blair , D. G. V. Mitchell , & K. S. Blair (2005). The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Oxford: Blackwell.
J. H. Blaise , J. L. Koranda , U. Chow , K. E. Haines , & E. C. Dorward (2008). Neonatal isolation stress alters bidirectional long-term synaptic plasticity in amygdalo-hippocampal synapses in freely behaving adult rats. Brain Research, 1193, 25–33.
R. J. Blanchard , D. C. Blanchard , T. Takahashi , & M. J. Kelley (1977). Attack and defensive behaviour in the albino rat. Animal Behaviour, 25, 622–634.
H. P. Blumberg , C. Fredericks , F. Wang , J. H. Kalmar , L. Spencer , X. Papademetris , (2005). Preliminary evidence for persistent abnormalities in amygdala volumes in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder, 7, 570–576.
H. P. Blumberg , J. Kaufman , A. Martin , D. S. Charney , J. H. Krystal , & B. S. Peterson (2004). Significance of adolescent neurodevelopment for the neural circuitry of bipolar disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 376–383.
H. P. Blumberg , J. Kaufman , A. Martin , R. Whiteman , J. H. Zhang , J. C. Gore , (2003). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1201–1208.
J. P. Bourgeois , P. S. Goldman-Rakic , & P. Rakic (1994). Synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys. Cerebral Cortex, 4, 78–96.
J. D. Bremner , E. Vermetten , M. Vythilingam , N. Afzal , C. Schmahl , B. Elzinga , (2004). Neural correlates of the classic color and emotional Stroop in women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 612–620.
R. A. Bryant , K. L. Felmingham , A. H. Kemp , M. Barton , A. S. Peduto , C. Rennie , (2005). Neural networks of information processing in posttraumatic stress disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 111–118.
R. A. Bryant , A. H. Kemp , K. L. Felmingham , B. Liddell , G. Olivieri , A. Peduto , (2008). Enhanced amygdala and medial prefrontal activation during nonconscious processing of fear in posttraumatic stress disorder: An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 29, 517–523.
S. Budhani , & R. J. Blair (2005). Response reversal and children with psychopathic tendencies: Success is a function of salience of contingency change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 972–981.
S. Budhani , A. A. Marsh , D. S. Pine & R. J. Blair (2007). Neural correlates of response reversal: Considering acquisition. Neuroimage, 34, 1754–1765.
S. Budhani , R. A. Richell , & R. J. Blair (2006). Impaired reversal but intact acquisition: Probabilistic response reversal deficits in adult individuals with psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 552–558.
J. D. Burke , R. Loeber , & B. B. Lahey (2007). Adolescent conduct disorder and interpersonal callousness as predictors of psychopathy in young adults. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 334–346.
B. K. Chen , R. Sassi , D. Axelson , J. P. Hatch , M. Sanches , M. Nicoletti , (2004). Cross-sectional study of abnormal amygdala development in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 399–405.
E. F. Coccaro , M. S. McCloskey , D. A. Fitzgerald , & K. L. Phan (2007). Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 168–178.
E. F. Coccaro , M. A. Posternak , & M. Zimmerman (2005). Prevalence and features of intermittent explosive disorder in a clinical setting. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, 1221–1227.
E. F. Coccaro , C. A. Schmidt , J. F. Samuels , & G. Nestadt (2004). Lifetime and 1-month prevalence rates of intermittent explosive disorder in a community sample. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 820–824.
H. Cohen , M. A. Matar , G. Richter-Levin , & J. Zohar (2006). The contribution of an animal model toward uncovering biological risk factors for PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 335–350.
E. Colledge , & R. J. R. Blair (2001). The relationship in children between the inattention and impulsivity components of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and psychopathic tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1175–1187.
J. D. Coplan , M. W. Andrews , L. A. Rosenblum , M. J. Owens , S. Friedman , J. M. Gorman , (1996). Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: Implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 1619–1623.
D. G. Cornell , J. Warren , G. Hawk , E. Stafford , G. Oram , & D. Pine (1996). Psychopathy in instrumental and reactive violent offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 783–790.
N. R. Crick , & K. A. Dodge (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms on reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993–1002.
H. D. Critchley , A. Simmons , E. M. Daly , A. Russell , A. T. Van , D. M. Robertson , (2000). Prefrontal and medial temporal correlates of repetitive violence to self and others. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 928–934.
M. R. Dadds , Y. Perry , D. J. Hawes , S. Merz , A. C. Riddell , D. J. Haines , (2006). Attention to the eyes and fear-recognition deficits in child psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 280–281.
A. Danielyan , S. Pathak , R. A. Kowatch , S. P. Arszman , & E. S. Johns (2007). Clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder in very young children. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 51–59.
M. P. DelBello , M. E. Zimmerman , N. P. Mills , G. E. Getz , & S. M. Strakowski (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of amygdala and other subcortical brain regions in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 6, 43–52.
A. Dixon , P. Howie , J. Starling , & M. P. H. Franzcp (2005). Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and psychiatric comorbidity in female juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 798–806.
A. Etkin , & T. D. Wager (2007). Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: A meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1476–1488.
B. J. Everitt , R. N. Cardinal , J. A. Parkinson , & T. W. Robbins (2003). Appetitive behavior: Impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 233–250.
G. L. Faedda , R. J. Baldessarini , I. P. Glovinsky , & N. B. Austin (2004). Pediatric bipolar disorder: Phenomenology and course of illness. Bipolar Disorder, 6, 305–313.
E. C. Finger , A. A. Marsh , D. G. V. Mitchell , M. Reid , C. Sims , S. Budhani , (2008). Abnormal ventromedial prefrontal cortex function in children with callous and unemotional traits during reversal learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 586–594.
H. Flor , N. Birbaumer , C. Hermann , S. Ziegler , & C. J. Patrick (2002). Aversive Pavlovian conditioning in psychopaths: Peripheral and central correlates. Psychophysiology, 39, 505–518.
G. Frazzetto , L. G. Di , V. Carola , L. Proietti , E. Sokolowska , A. Siracusano , (2007). Early trauma and increased risk for physical aggression during adulthood: The moderating role of MAOA genotype. PLoS ONE, 2, e486.
P. J. Frick , B. S. O'Brien , J. M. Wootton , & K. McBurnett (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707.
P. J. Frick , T. R. Stickle , D. M. Dandreaux , J. M. Farrell , & E. R. Kimonis (2005). Callous-unemotional traits in predicting the severity and stability of conduct problems and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 471–487.
P. J. Frick , & S. F. White (2008). Research review: The importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 359–375.
J. N. Giedd (2004). Adolescent brain development: Vulnerabilities and opportunities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 77–85.
J. N. Giedd , J. Blumenthal , & N. O. Jeffries (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861–863.
H. L. Gordon , A. A. Baird , & A. End (2004). Functional differences among those high and low on a trait measure of psychopathy. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 516–521.
P. F. Goyer , P. J. Andreason , W. E. Semple , A. H. Clayton , A. C. King , B. A. Compton-Toth , (1994). Positron-emission tomography and personality disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 10, 21–28.
J. Grafman , K. Schwab , D. Warden , A. Pridgen , H. R. Brown , & A. M. Salazar (1996). Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: A report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology, 46, 1231–1238.
Y. P. Graham , C. Heim , S. H. Goodman , A. H. Miller , & C. B. Nemeroff (1999). The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 545–565.
T. R. Gregg , & A. Siegel (2001). Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: Implications for human aggression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 25, 91–140.
R. Hare , S. J. Glass , & J. P. Newman (2006). Current perspectives on psychopathy. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217–246.
A. R. Hariri , E. M. Drabant , K. E. Munoz , B. S. Kolachana , V. S. Mattay , M. F. Egan , (2005). A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 146–152.
T. J. Harpur , & R. D. Hare (1994). Assessment of psychopathy as a function of age. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 604–609.
M. L. Hoffman (1994). Discipline and internalisation. Developmental Psychology, 30, 26–28.
C. I. Hooker , L. T. Germine , R. T. Knight , & M. D'Esposito (2006). Amygdala response to facial expressions reflects emotional learning. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8915–8922.
K. A. Kiehl , A. M. Smith , R. D. Hare , A. Mendrek , B. B. Forster , J. Brink , (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 677–684.
G. Kochanska (1997). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: From toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228–240.
D. S. Kosson , Y. Suchy , A. R. Mayer , & J. Libby (2002). Facial affect recognition in criminal psychopaths. Emotion, 2, 398–411.
G. W. Kraemer , M. H. Ebert , D. E. Schmidt , & W. T. McKinney (1989). A longitudinal study of the effect of different social rearing conditions on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and biogenic amine metabolites in rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2, 175–189.
M. Kraszpulski , P. A. Dickerson , & A. K. Salm (2006). Prenatal stress affects the developmental trajectory of the rat amygdala. Stress, 9, 85–95.
R. A. Lanius , P. C. Williamson , M. Densmore , K. Boksman , M. A. Gupta , R. W. Neufeld , (2001). Neural correlates of traumatic memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: A functional MRI investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1920–1922.
E. Leibenluft , R. J. Blair , D. S. Charney , & D. S. Pine (2003). Irritability in pediatric mania and other childhood psychopathology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 201–218.
G. K. Levenston , C. J. Patrick , M. M. Bradley , & P. J. Lang (2000). The psychopath as observer: Emotion and attention in picture processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 373–385.
D. A. Lewis (1997). Development of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence: Insights into vulnerable neural circuits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 16, 385–398.
I. Liberzon , S. F. Taylor , R. Amdur , T. D. Jung , K. R. Chamberlain , S. Minoshima , (1999). Brain activation in PTSD in response to trauma-related stimuli. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 817–826.
M. Linnoila , M. Virkkunen , M. Scheinin , A. Nuutila , R. Rimon , & F. Goodwin (1983). Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior. Life Sciences, 33, 2609–2614.
R. A. Lochhead , R. V. Parsey , M. A. Oquendo , & J. J. Mann (2004). Regional brain gray matter volume differences in patients with bipolar disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 1154–1162.
D. R. Lynam , A. Caspi , T. E. Moffitt , R. Loeber , & M. Stouthamer-Loeber (2007). Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 155–165.
I. K. Lyoo , M. J. Kim , A. L. Stoll , C. M. Demopulos , A. M. Parow , S. R. Dager , (2004). Frontal lobe gray matter density decreases in bipolar I disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 648–651.
C. J. Machado , & J. Bachevalier (2003). Non-human primate models of childhood psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 64–87.
D. Maestripieri , J. D. Higley , S. G. Lindell , T. K. Newman , K. M. McCormack , & M. M. Sanchez (2006). Early maternal rejection affects the development of monoaminergic systems and adult abusive parenting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 1017–1024.
D. Maestripieri , K. McCormack , S. G. Lindell , J. D. Higley , & M. M. Sanchez (2006). Influence of parenting style on the offspring's behaviour and CSF monoamine metabolite levels in crossfostered and noncrossfostered female rhesus macaques. Behavioural Brain Research, 175, 90–95.
A. A. Marsh , E. C. Finger , D. G. V. Mitchell , M. E. Reid , C. Sims , D. S. Kosson , (2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 712–720.
S. L. McElroy , C. A. Soutullo , D. A. Beckman , P. Taylor Jr., & P. E. Keck Jr. (1998). DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder: A report of 27 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 203–210.
A. M. McIntosh , D. E. Job , T. W. Moorhead , L. K. Harrison , K. Forrester , S. M. Lawrie , (2004). Voxel-based morphometry of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 544–552.
A. Meyer-Lindenberg , J. W. Buckholtz , B. Kolachana , A. R Harri , L. Pezawas , G. Blasi , (2006). Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America of America, 103, 6269–6274.
S. Mineka , & M. Cook (1993). Mechanisms involved in the observational conditioning of fear. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 23–38.
P. R. Montague , & G. S. Berns (2002). Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation. Neuron, 36, 265–284.
L. C. Munoz , & P. J. Frick (2007). The reliability, stability, and predictive utility of the self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 299–312.
D. J. Neller , R. L. Denney , C. A. Pietz , & R. P. Thomlinson (2006). The relationship between trauma and violence in a jail inmate sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 1234–1241.
J. P. Newman , & D. S. Kosson (1986). Passive avoidance learning in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 252–256.
J. Obradović , D. Pardini , J. D. Long , & R. Loeber (2007). Measuring interpersonal callousness in boys from childhood to adolescence: An examination of longitudinal invariance and temporal stability. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 276–292.
M. Oxford , T. A. Cavell , & J. N. Hughes (2003). Callous/unemotional traits moderate the relation between ineffective parenting and child externalizing problems: A partial replication and extension. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 577–585.
C. Padoa-Schioppa , & J. A. Assad (2006). Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value. Nature, 441, 223–226.
M. N. Pavuluri , M. M. O'Connor , E. Harral , & J. A. Sweeney (2007). Affective neural circuitry during facial emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 158–167.
X. Protopopescu , H. Pan , O. Tuescher , M. Cloitre , M. Goldstein , W. Engelien , (2005). Differential time courses and specificity of amygdala activity in posttraumatic stress disorder subjects and normal control subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 464–473.
A. Raine (2002). Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 417–434.
A. Raine , M. Buchsbaum , & L. Lacasse (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 495–508.
A. Raine , M. S. Buchsbaum , J. Stanley , S. Lottenberg , L. Abel , & J. Stoddard (1994). Selective reductions in prefrontal glucose metabolism in murderers. Biological Psychiatry, 36, 365–373.
S. L. Rauch , B. A. van der Kolk , R. E. Fisler , N. M. Alpert , S. P. Orr , C. R. Savage , (1996). A symptom provocation study of posttraumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script-driven imagery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 380–387.
S. L. Rauch , P. J. Whalen , L. M. Shin , S. C. McInerney , M. L. Macklin , N. B. Lasko , (2000). Exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: A functional MRI study. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 769–776.
J. K. Rilling , A. L. Glenn , M. R. Jairam , G. Pagnoni , D. R. Goldsmith , H. A. Elfenbein , (2007). Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1260–1271.
V. V. Ruchkin , M. Schwab-Stone , R. Koposov , R. Vermeiren , & H. Steiner (2002). Violence exposure, posttraumatic stress, and personality in juvenile delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 322–329.
M. J. Sabatini , P. Ebert , D. A. Lewis , P. Levitt , J. L. Cameron , & K. Mirnics (2007). Amygdala gene expression correlates of social behavior in monkeys experiencing maternal separation. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 3295–3304.
A. K. Salm , M. Pavelko , E. M. Krouse , W. Webster , M. Kraszpulski , & D. L. Birkle (2004). Lateral amygdaloid nucleus expansion in adult rats is associated with exposure to prenatal stress. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research, 148, 159–167.
F. Schneider , U. Habel , C. Kessler , S. Posse , W. Grodd , & H. W. Muller-Gartner (2000). Functional imaging of conditioned aversive emotional responses in antisocial personality disorder. Neuropsychobiology, 42, 192–201.
G. Schoenbaum , & M. Roesch (2005). Orbitofrontal cortex, associative learning, and expectancies. Neuron, 47, 633–636.
L. M. Shin , S. M. Kosslyn , R. J. McNally , N. M. Alpert , W. L. Thompson , S. L. Rauch , (1997). Visual imagery and perception in posttraumatic stress disorder. A positron emission tomographic investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 233–241.
L. M. Shin , S. P. Orr , M. A. Carson , S. L. Rauch , M. L. Macklin , N. B. Lasko , (2004). Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 168–176.
L. M. Shin , P. J. Whalen , R. K. Pitman , G. Bush , M. L. Macklin , N. B. Lasko , (2001). An fMRI study of anterior cingulate function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 932–942.
L. M. Shin , C. I. Wright , P. A. Cannistraro , M. M. Wedig , K. McMullin , B. Martis , (2005). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 273–281.
J. A. Silva , D. V. Derecho , G. B. Leong , R. Weinstock , & M. M. Ferrari (2001). A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Forensic Science, 46, 309–316.
P. Silverthorn & P. J. Frick (1999). Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: The delayed-onset pathway in girls. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 101–126.
H. Soderstrom , L. Hultin , M. Tullberg , C. Wikkelso , S. Ekholm , & A. Forsman (2002). Reduced frontotemporal perfusion in psychopathic personality. Psychiatry Research, 114, 81–94.
H. Soderstrom , M. Tullberg , C. Wikkelso , S. Ekholm , & A. Forsman (2000). Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in non-psychotic violent offenders. Psychiatry Research, 98, 29–41.
H. Steiner , & L. Remsing (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 126–141.
P. Sterzer , C. Stadler , A. Krebs , A. Kleinschmidt , & F. Poustka (2005). Abnormal neural responses to emotional visual stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 7–15.
P. Sterzer , C. Stadler , F. Poustka , & A. Kleinschmidt (2007). A structural neural deficit in adolescents with conduct disorder and its association with lack of empathy. NeuroImage, 37, 335–342.
E. Taylor , R. Schachar , G. Thorley , & M. Wieselberg (1986). Conduct disorder and hyperactivity: I. Separation of hyperactivity and antisocial conduct in British child psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 760–767.
L. T. van Elst , F. G. Woermann , L. Lemieux , P. J. Thompson , & M. R. Trimble (2000). Affective aggression in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: A quantitative MRI study of the amygdala. Brain, 123, 234–243.
E. Verona , C. J. Patrick , & T. E. Joiner (2001). Psychopathy, antisocial personality, and suicide risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 462–470.
E. Viding , R. J. R. Blair , T. E. Moffitt , & R. Plomin (2005). Evidence for substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 592–597.
N. D. Volkow , & L. Tancredi (1987). Neural substrates of violent behaviour. A preliminary study with positron emission tomography. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 668–673.
L. M. Williams , A. H. Kemp , K. Felmingham , M. Barton , G. Olivieri , A. Peduto , (2006). Trauma modulates amygdala and medial prefrontal responses to consciously attended fear. NeuroImage, 29, 347–357.
F. G. Woermann , L. T. van Elst , M. J. Koepp , S. L. Free , P. J. Thompson , M. R. Trimble , (2000). Reduction of frontal neocortical grey matter associated with affective aggression in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: An objective voxel by voxel analysis of automatically segmented MRI. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 68, 162–169.
J. M. Wootton , P. J. Frick , K. K. Shelton , & P. Silverthorn (1997). Ineffective parenting and childhood conduct problems: The moderating role of callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 301–308.
M. Zoccolillo (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and its adult outcomes with depressive and anxiety disorders: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 547–556.