Skip to main content

The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among economically disadvantaged mothers

  • Sheree L. Toth (a1), Fred A. Rogosch (a1), Assaf Oshri (a1), Julie Gravener-Davis (a1), Robin Sturm (a1) and Antonio Alexander Morgan-López (a2) (a3)...

A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for ethnically and racially diverse, economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder. Non-treatment-seeking urban women (N = 128; M age = 25.40, SD = 4.98) with infants were recruited from the community. Participants were at or below the poverty level: 59.4% were Black and 21.1% were Hispanic. Women were screened for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to confirm major depressive disorder diagnosis. Participants were randomized to individual IPT or enhanced community standard. Depressive symptoms were assessed before, after, and 8 months posttreatment with the Beck Depression Inventory—II and the Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The Social Support Behaviors Scale, the Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report, and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered to examine mediators of outcome at follow-up. Treatment effects were evaluated with a growth mixture model for randomized trials using complier-average causal effect estimation. Depressive symptoms trajectories from baseline through postintervention to follow-up showed significant decreases among the IPT group compared to the enhanced community standard group. Changes on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Social Support Behaviors Scale mediated sustained treatment outcome.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among economically disadvantaged mothers
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among economically disadvantaged mothers
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among economically disadvantaged mothers
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Sheree L. Toth, Mt. Hope Family Center, University of Rochester, 187 Edinburgh Street, Rochester, NY 14608; E-mail:
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bagby R. M., Ryder A. G., Schuller D. R., & Marshall M. B. (2004). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Has the gold standard become a lead weight? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 21632177.
Bateman B., & Fonagy P. (1999). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 15631569.
Beck A. T., Steer R. A., & Brown G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory—II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Bernstein D. P., & Fink L. (1994). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A retrospective self-report manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Bernstein D. P., Stein J. A., Newcomb M. D., Walker E., Pogge D., Ahluvalia T., et al. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 169190.
Bowlby J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. London: Hogarth Press.
Bowlby J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: 1. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 201210.
Chapman D. P., Whitfield C. L., Felitti V. J., Dube S. R., Edwards V. J., & Anda R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217225.
Cheong J., MacKinnon D. P., & Khoo S. T. (2001). A latent growth modeling approach to mediation analysis. In Collins L. M. & Sayer A. (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 390392). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Cheong J., MacKinnon D. P., & Khoo S. T. (2003). Investigation of mediational processes using parallel process latent growth curve modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 238262.
Cicchetti D., & Toth S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221241.
Cicchetti D., & Toth S. L. (2000). Developmental processes in maltreated children. In Hansen D. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Child maltreatment (pp. 85160). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Clark R., Tluczek A., & Wenzel A. (2003). Psychotherapy for postpartum depression: A preliminary report. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 441454.
Cohen S., Kamarck T., & Marmelstein R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385396.
Connell A. (2009). Employing complier average causal effect analytic methods to examine effects of randomized encouragement trials. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35, 253259.
Cuijpers P., Geraedts A. S., van Oppen P., Andersson G., Markowitz J. C., & van Straten A. (2011). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 581592.
Dozois D. J. A., Dobson K. S., & Ahnberg J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory—II. Psychological Assessment, 10, 8389.
Elkin I., Shea M. T., Watkins J. T., Imber S. D., Sotsky S. M., Collins J. F., et al. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971982.
Frank E., Kupfer D. J., Perel J. M., Cornes C., Jarrett D. B., Mallinger A., et al. (1990). Three-year outcomes for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 10931099.
Goodman S. H., & Gotlib I. H. (Eds.) (2002). Children of depressed parents: Alternative pathways to risk for psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Gravener J. A., Rogosch F. A., Oshri A., Narayan A., Cicchetti D., & Toth S. L. (2011). The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal expressed emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9598-z
Grote N. K., Swartz H. A., Geibel S. L., Zuckoff A., Houck P. R., & Frank E. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of culturally relevant, brief interpersonal psychotherapy for perinatal depression. Psychiatric Services, 60, 313321.
Gunlicks-Stoessel M., Mufson L., Jekal A., & Turner B. (2010). The impact of perceived interpersonal functioning on treatment for adolescent depression: IPT-A versus treatment as usual in school-based health clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 260267.
Hammen C., & Brennan P. A. (2003). Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnoses in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 253258.
Hammen C., Henry R., & Daley S. E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 782787. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.782
Harkness K. L., Bruce A. E., & Lumely M. N. (2006). The role of childhood abuse and neglect in the sensitization to stressful life events in adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 730741.
Hobfoll S. E., Ritter C., Lavin J., Hulsizer M. R., & Cameron R. P. (1995). Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 445453.
Hollon S. D., DeRubeis R. J., & Seligman M. E. P. (1992). Cognitive therapy and the prevention of depression. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 1, 8995. doi:10.1016/S0962-1849(05)80149-0
Hollon S. D., & Ponniah K. (2010). A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 891932. doi:10.1002/da.20741
Hyman S. M., Garcia M., Kemp K., Mazure C., & Sinha R. (2005). A gender specific psychometric analysis of the early trauma inventory short form in cocaine dependent adults. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 847852.
Jo B. (2002). Estimation of intervention effects with noncompliance: Alternative model specifications. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 27, 385409.
Jo B. (2008a). Bias mechanisms in intention-to-treat analysis with data subject to treatment noncompliance and missing outcomes. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 33, 158185.
Jo B. (2008b). Causal inference in randomized experiments with meditational processes. Psychological Methods, 13, 314336.
Kazdin A. E. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 127. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432
Kendler K. S., Kuhn J., & Prescott C. A. (2004). The interrelationship of neuroticism, sex, and stressful life events in the prediction of episodes of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 631636.
Kessler R. C., Berglund P., Demler O., Jin R., Koretz. D., Merkiangas K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 30953105. doi:10.1001/jama.289.23.3095
Kessler R. C., McGonagle K. A., Nelson C. B., Hughes M., Swartz M., & Blazer D. G. (1994). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey: II. Cohort effects. Journal of Affective Disorders, 30, 1526.
Kessler R. C., McGonagle K. A., Swartz M., Blazer D. G., & Nelson C. B. (1993). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey: I. Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 29, 8596.
Khan A., Schwartz K., Kolts R. L., Ridgway D., & Lineberry C. (2007). Relationship between depression severity entry criteria and antidepressant clinical trial outcomes. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 6571. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.036
Klerman G. L., Weissman M. M., Rounsaville B. J., & Chevron E. S. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Kraemer H. C., Wilson G. T., Fairburn C. G., & Agras W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877883.
Krupnick J. L., Green B. L., Stockton P., Miranda J., Krause E., & Mete M. (2008). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 18, 497507.
Leentjens A. F. G., Verhey F. R. J., Lousberg R., Spitsbergen H., & Wilmink F. W. (2000). The validity of the Hamilton and Montgomery–Åsberg depression rating scales as screening and diagnostic tools for depression in Parkinson's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 644649.
Lenze E. J., Dew M. A., Mazumdar S., Begley A. E., Cornes C., Miller M. D., et al. (2002). Combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy as maintenance treatment for late-life depression: Effects on social adjustment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 466468.
Lewis C. C., Simons A. D., Nguyen L. J., Murakami J. L., Reid M. W., Silva S. G., et al. (2010). Impact of childhood trauma on treatment outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 132140.
Little R. J. A., & Yau L. (1998). Statistical techniques for analyzing data from prevention trials: Treatment of no-shows using Rubin's causal model. Psychological Methods, 3, 147159.
Lopez-Pina J. A., Sanchez-Meca J., & Rosa-Alcazar A. I. (2009). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: A meta-analytic reliability generalization study. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9, 143159.
Mackinnon D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Erlbaum.
Marchand J. F., Hock E., & Widaman K. (2002). Mutual relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and hostile-controlling behavior and young children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 335353.
Markowitz J. C. (1998). Interpersonal psychotherapy for dysthymic disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Martins C., & Gaffan E. A. (2000). Effects of early maternal depression on patterns of infant–mother attachment: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 737746.
Masten A. S., & Cicchetti D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491495.
Miller W. R., & Rollnick S. (2009). Ten things that motivational interviewing is not. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 129140.
Miranda J., Chung J. Y., Green B. L., Krupnick J., Siddique M. S., Revicki D. A., et al. (2003). Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 5765.
Mitchell A. M., Crane P. A., & Kim Y. (2008). Perceived stress in survivors of suicide: Psychometric properties of the perceived stress scale. Research in Nursing & Health, 31, 576585. doi:10.1002/nur.20284
Morris D. W., Rush A. J., Jain S., Fava M., Wisniewski S. R., Balasubramani G. K., et al. (2007). Diurnal mood variation in outpatients with major depressive disorder: Implications for DSM-V from an analysis of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Study data. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 13391347.
Mufson L., Dorta K. P., Wickramaratne P., Nomura Y., Olfson M., & Weissman M. M. (2004). A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 577584.
Mufson L., Moreau D., Weissman M., Wickramaratne P., Martin J., & Samilov A. (1994). Modification of interpersonal psychotherapy with depressed adolescents (IPT-A): Phase I and II studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 695705.
Mufson L., Weissman M., Moreau D., & Garfinkel R. (1999). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 573579.
Muthén L. K., & Muthén B. (1998–2010). Mplus user's guide: Version 6. Los Angeles: Author.
O'Hara M., & Swain A. (1996). Rates and risks of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 3755. doi:10.3109/09540269609037816
O'Hara M. W., Stuart S., Gorman L. L., & Wenzel A. (2000). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 10391045.
Persons J. B., & Silberschatz G. (1998). Are results of randomized controlled trials useful to psychotherapists? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 126135.
Persons J. B., Thase M. E., & Crits-Christoph P. (1996). The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 283290.
Pilowsky D. J., Wickramaratne P., Talati A., Tang M., Hughs C. W., Garber J., et al. (2008). Children of depressed mothers 1 year after the initiation of maternal treatment: Findings from the STAR*D-Child study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 11361147.
Radloff L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Regier D. A., Herschfeld R. M., Goodwin F. K., Burke J. D., Lazar J. B., & Judd L. L. (1988). The NIMH depression awareness, recognition, and treatment program: Structure, aims, and scientific basis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 13511357.
Robins L. N., Cottler L., Bucholz K., & Compton W. (1995). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. St. Louis, MO: Washington University Press.
Robins L. N., Helzer J. E., Croughan J., & Ratcliff K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381389.
Robins L. N., Helzer J. E., Ratcliff K. S, & Seyfried W. (1982). Validity of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, version II: DSM-III diagnoses. Psychological Medicine, 12, 855870.
Robins L. N., Helzer J. E., Weissman M. M., Orvaschel H., Gruenberg E., Burke J. D., et al. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949958.
Rossello J., & Bernal G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive–behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 734745.
Rossello J., Bernal G., & Rivera-Medina C. (2008). Individual and group CBT and IPT for Puerto Rican adolescents with depressive symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 234245.
Schafer J. L., & Graham J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Segre L. S., O'Hara M. W., Arndt S., & Stuart S. (2007). The prevalence of postpartum depression: The relative significance of three social status indices. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 316321. doi:10.1007/s00127-007-0168-1
Shaw D. S., Connell A., Dishion T. J., Wilson M. N., & Gardner F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417439.
Siefert K., Bowman P. J., Heflin M. P. P., Danziger S., & Williams D. R. (2000). Social and environmental predictors of maternal depression in current and recent welfare recipients. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 510522.
Silk J. S., Shaw D. S., Forbes E. E., Lane T. L., & Kovacs M. (2006). Maternal depression and child internalizing: The moderating role of child emotion regulation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 116126.
Smedley B. D., Stith A. Y., & Nelson A. R. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Institute of Medicine Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Spinelli M. G., & Endicott J. (2003). Controlled clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy versus parenting education program for depressed pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 555562.
Storch E. A., Roberti J. W., & Roth D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the Beck Depression Inventory—second edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 187189. doi:10.1002/da.20002
Stuart S. (2008). What is IPT? The basic principles and the inevitability of change. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 38, 110. doi:10.1007/s10879-007-9063-z
Stuart S., & Robertson M. (2003). Interpersonal psychotherapy: A clinician's guide. London: Edward Arnold.
Tabuse H., Kalali A., Azuma H., Ozaki N., Iwata N., Naitoh H., et al. (2007). The new GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression demonstrates excellent inter-rater reliability for inexperienced and experienced raters before and after training. Psychiatry Research, 153, 6167.
Talbot N. L., Conwell Y., O'Hara M. W., Stuart S., Ward E. A., Gamble S. A., et al. (2005). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed women with sexual abuse histories: A pilot study in a community mental health center. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 847850.
Tofighi D., & MacKinnon D. P. (2011). RMediation: An R package for mediation analysis confidence intervals. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 692700.
Toth S. L., Maughan A., Manly J. T., Spagnola M., & Cicchetti D. (2002). The relative efficacy of two interventions in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: Implications for attachment theory. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 777808.
Toth S. L., Rogosch F. A., Manly J. T., & Cicchetti D. (2006). The efficacy of toddler–parent psychotherapy to reorganize attachment in the young offspring of mothers with major depressive disorder: A randomized preventive trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 10061016.
Trivedi M. H., Rush A. J., Wisniewski S. R., Nierenberg A. A., Warden D., Ritz L., et al. (2006). Evaluation of outcomes with Citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: Implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 2840.
US Census Bureau. (2006–2010). Selected Economic Characteristics: American Community Survey. Monroe County, NY. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity: A supplement to mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Author.
Vaux A., & Harrison D. (1985). Support network characteristics associated with support satisfaction and perceived support. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 245268.
Vaux A., Riedel S., & Stewart D. (1987). Modes of social support: The social support behaviors (SS-B) scale. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 209232. doi:10.1007/BF00919279
Vesga-Lopez O., Blanco C., Keyes K., Olfson M., Grant B. F., & Hasin D. S. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 805815.
Wang P. S., Lane M., Olfson M., Pincus H. A., Wells K. B., & Kessler R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629640.
Warren W. L. (1994). Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (RHRSD): Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Weiss E. L., Longhurst J. G., & Mazure C. M. (1999). Childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor for depression in women: Psychosocial and neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 816828.
Weissman M. M. (1999). Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR): User's manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Weissman M. M., & Bothwell S. (1976). Assessment of social adjustment by patient self-report. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 11111115.
Weissman M. M., & Markowitz J. C. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 599606.
Weissman M. M., Markowitz J. W., & Klerman G. L. (2000). Comprehensive guide to interpersonal psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
Weissman M. M., & Olfson M. (1995). Depression in women: Implications for health care research. Science, 269, 799801.
Weissman M. M., Pilowsky D. J., Wickramarante P. J., Talati A., Wisniewski S. R., Fava M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A STAR*D-Child report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 13891398.
Weissman M. M., Sholomskas D., & John K. (1981). The assessment of social adjustment: An update. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 12501258.
Weissman M. M., Wickramaratne P., Nomura Y., Warner V., Pilowsky D., & Verdeli H. (2006). Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 10011008.
Whiffen V. E., & Gotlib I. H. (1993). Comparison of postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: Clinical presentation, psychiatric history, and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 485494.
Williams D. R., & Collins C. (1995). U.S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 349386.
Yuan K. H., & Bentler P. M. (2000). Robust mean and covariance structure analysis through iteratively reweighted least squares. Psychometrika, 65, 4358.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 288 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 469 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.