Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 32
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Moor, Nienke and de Graaf, Paul M. 2016. Temporary and Long-Term Consequences of Bereavement on Happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 913.


    Agrati, Daniella Browne, Dillon Jonas, Wibke Meaney, Michael Atkinson, Leslie Steiner, Meir and Fleming, Alison S. 2015. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament. Archives of Women's Mental Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 5, p. 693.


    Georgianna, Sibylle 2015. Addressing Risk Factors Associated With Women's Sexually Compulsive Behaviors Through Psycho-Education and Self-leadership Development. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 314.


    Albin, Björn Qin, Jiang and Hong, Zhang 2013. Mental health in the left‐behind children in the Fujian Province of China. Journal of Public Mental Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 21.


    Bifulco, Antonia 2013. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Mood Disorders.


    Kofink, Daniel Boks, Marco P.M. Timmers, H.T. Marc and Kas, Martien J. 2013. Epigenetic dynamics in psychiatric disorders: Environmental programming of neurodevelopmental processes. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. 831.


    Guo, Jing Chen, Li Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Yan Chui, Cheryl Hiu Kwan He, Huan Qu, Zhiyong and Tian, Donghua 2012. The Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Depression Among Migrant Children and Left-Behind Children in China. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Vol. 15, Issue. 11, p. 585.


    Moor, Nienke and Komter, Aafke 2012. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview. Demographic Research, Vol. 27, p. 201.


    Rostila, Mikael and Saarela, Jan M. 2011. Time Does Not Heal All Wounds: Mortality Following the Death of a Parent. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 73, Issue. 1, p. 236.


    Clark, Charlotte Caldwell, Tanya Power, Chris and Stansfeld, Stephen A. 2010. Does the Influence of Childhood Adversity on Psychopathology Persist Across the Lifecourse? A 45-Year Prospective Epidemiologic Study. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, Issue. 5, p. 385.


    Kessler, R. C. McLaughlin, K. A. Green, J. G. Gruber, M. J. Sampson, N. A. Zaslavsky, A. M. Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. Alhamzawi, A. O. Alonso, J. Angermeyer, M. Benjet, C. Bromet, E. Chatterji, S. de Girolamo, G. Demyttenaere, K. Fayyad, J. Florescu, S. Gal, G. Gureje, O. Haro, J. M. Hu, C.-y. Karam, E. G. Kawakami, N. Lee, S. Lepine, J.-P. Ormel, J. Posada-Villa, J. Sagar, R. Tsang, A. Ustun, T. B. Vassilev, S. Viana, M. C. and Williams, D. R. 2010. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 197, Issue. 5, p. 378.


    Qin, Jiang and Albin, Björn 2010. The mental health of children left behind in rural China by migrating parents: a literature review. Journal of Public Mental Health, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. 4.


    Bénézech, M. Pham, T.H. and Le Bihan, P. 2009. Les nouvelles dispositions concernant les criminels malades mentaux dans la loi du 25 février 2008 relative à la rétention de sûreté et à la déclaration d’irresponsabilité pénale pour cause de trouble mental : une nécessaire évaluation du risque criminel. Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, Vol. 167, Issue. 1, p. 39.


    Li, Xiaoming Barnett, Douglas Fang, Xiaoyi Lin, Xiuyun Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao, Junfeng Hong, Yan Zhang, Liying Naar-King, Sylvie and Stanton, Bonita 2009. Lifetime Incidences of Traumatic Events and Mental Health Among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 38, Issue. 5, p. 731.


    Liu, Zhengkui Li, Xinying and Ge, Xiaojia 2009. Left Too Early: The Effects of Age at Separation From Parents on Chinese Rural Children's Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 99, Issue. 11, p. 2049.


    Zhang, Jintao Zhao, Guoxiang Li, Xiaoming Hong, Yan Fang, Xiaoyi Barnett, Douglas Lin, Xiuyun Zhao, Junfeng and Zhang, Liying 2009. Positive future orientation as a mediator between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China. AIDS Care, Vol. 21, Issue. 12, p. 1508.


    Bifulco, A. 2007. Encyclopedia of Stress.


    Uebelacker, Lisa A. and Whisman, Mark A. 2006. Moderators of the association between relationship discord and major depression in a national population-based sample.. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 40.


    Bifulco, A. Bernazzani, O. Moran, P. M. and Jacobs, C. 2005. The childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA.Q): Validation in a community series. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 563.


    Christ, Grace H. Raveis, Victoria H. Siegel, Karolynn Karas, Daniel and Christ, Adolph E. 2005. Evaluation of a Preventive Intervention for Bereaved Children. Journal of Social Work in End-Of-Life & Palliative Care, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 57.


    ×

Mourning or early inadequate care? Reexamining the relationship of maternal loss in childhood with adult depression and anxiety

  • Antonia Bifulco (a1), Tirrill Harris (a1) and George W. Brown (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400000882
  • Published online: 31 October 2008
Abstract
Abstract

Two population enquiries in Walthamstow and Islington, London, have shown that loss of the mother before the age of 17 years, either by death or separation for a year or more, doubles the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders among adult women. Furthermore, there was a particularly high rate of adult depression among those whose mothers died before they were 6 years old, and this was associated with a measure of childhood helplessness. There was no such link of either adult disorder or childhood helplessness with age at loss under 6 years for those losing a mother by separation. Two possible explanations were explored for these contrasting results. That concerning the adequacy of mourning of the mother's death received no support. However, evidence indicated that experience with the mother before the loss (usually affected by ongoing illness) explained the link of adult depression or anxiety with her early death. The failure of age at loss to relate in the separation group was probably due to the fact that among them age of separation was not a good indication of the quality of maternal care before age 6. Indirect evidence emerged which suggested that quality of early attachment (before age 6) to the natural mother before any loss relates to childhood helplessness. This in turn relates to a higher risk of disorder in adult life.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address reprint requests to: A. Bifulco, Department of Social Policy and Social Science, Royal Holloway & Bedford New College, University of London, 11, Bedford Square, London WC1B 3RA, UK.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. T. Bifulco , G. W. Brown , & T. O. Harris (1987). Childhood loss of parent, lack of adequate parental care and adult depression: A replication. Journal of Affective Disorders, 12, 115128.

I. Bretherton (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research (pp. 335). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50.

G. W. Brown , T. J. K. Craig , & T. Harris (1985). Depression: Disease or distress? British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 612622.

R. J. Cadoret , T. W. O'Gorman , E. Heywood , & E. Troughton (1985). Genetic and environmental factors in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 9, 155164.

J. Cohen (1968). Weighted kappa. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 213220.

T. Crook , & J. Eliot (1980). Parental death during childhood and adult depression. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 252259.

T. Harris , G. W. Brown , & A. Bifulco (1990a). Depression and situational helplessness/mastery in a sample selected to study childhood parental loss. Journal of Affective Disorders, 20, 2741.

E. M. Hetherington (1979). Divorce: A child's perspective. American Psychologist, 34, 851858.

J. Hodges , & B. Tizard (1989). IQ and behavioral adjustment of ex-institutional adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 5375.

M. Maclean , & M. E. J. Wadsworth (1988). The interests of children after parental divorce: A long-term perspective. International Journal of Law and the Family, 2, 155166.

G. Nelson (1982). Parental death during childhood and adult depression: Some additional data. Social Psychiatry, 17, 3742.

L. A. Sroufe , & M. Rutter (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 11841199.

A. L. Von Knorring , M. Bohman , & S. Sigvardsson (1982). Early life experiences and psychiatric disorders—An adoptee study. Acta Scandinavica, 65, 283291.

J. S. Wallerstein , & J. B. Kelly (1975). The effects of parental divorce: Experiences of the pre-school child. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 600616.

E. Waters , & L. A. Sroufe (1983). Competence as a developmental construct. Developmental Review, 3, 7987.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×