Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Prospective developmental subtypes of alcohol dependence from age 18 to 32 years: Implications for nosology, etiology, and intervention

  • Madeline H. Meier (a1), Avshalom Caspi (a1) (a2), Renate Houts (a1), Wendy S. Slutske (a3), Honalee Harrington (a1), Kristina M. Jackson (a4), Daniel W. Belsky (a1), Richie Poulton (a5) and Terrie E. Moffitt (a1) (a2)...
Abstract
Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to identify child and adult correlates that differentiate (a) individuals with persistent alcohol dependence from individuals with developmentally limited alcohol dependence and (b) individuals with adult-onset alcohol dependence from individuals who never diagnose. There are 1,037 members of the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, which is a birth cohort followed prospectively from birth until age 32. Past-year DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses are ascertained with structured diagnostic interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Individuals are classified as developmentally limited, persistent, or adult-onset subtypes based on their time-ordered pattern of diagnoses. The persistent subtype generally exhibits the worst scores on all correlates, including family psychiatric history, adolescent and adult externalizing and internalizing problems, adolescent and adult substance use, adult quality of life, and coping strategies. The prospective predictors that distinguished them from the developmentally limited subtype involved family liability, adolescent negative affectivity, daily alcohol use, and frequent marijuana use. Furthermore, young people who develop the persistent subtype of alcohol dependence are distinguished from the developmentally limited subtype by an inability to reduce drinking and by continued use despite problems by age 18. The adult-onset group members are virtually indistinguishable from ordinary cohort members as children or adolescents; however, in adulthood, adult-onset cases are distinguished by problems with depression, substance use, stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Information about age of onset and developmental course is fundamental for identifying subtypes of alcohol dependence. Subtype-specific etiologies point to targeted prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of each subtype.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Terrie E. Moffitt, Suite 201 Grey House, 2020 West Main Street, Duke University, Box 104410, Durham, NC 27708; E-mail: terrie.moffitt@duke.edu.
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Babor T. F., Hofmann M., DelBoca F. K., Hesselbrock V., Meyer R. E., Dolinsky Z. S., et al. (1992). Types of alcoholics: I. Evidence for an empirically derived typology based on indicators of vulnerability and severity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 599608.
Bates M. E., & Labouvie E. W. (1997). Adolescent risk factors and the prediction of persistent alcohol and drug use into adulthood. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 944950.
Bauer D. J., & Curran P. J. (2003). Distributional assumptions of growth mixture models: Implications for overextraction of latent trajectory classes. Psychological Methods, 8, 338363.
Bennett M. E., McCrady B. S., Johnson V., & Pandina R. J. (1999). Problem drinking from young adulthood to adulthood: Patterns, predictors and outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 605614.
Casswell S., Pledger M., & Pratap S. (2002). Trajectories of drinking from 18 to 26 years: Identification and prediction. Addiction, 97, 14271437.
Cicchetti D., & Rogosch F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.
Cloninger C. R., Bohman M., & Sigvardsson S. (1981). Inheritance of alcohol abuse: Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 861868.
Cohen J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159.
Cohen S., Kamarck T., & Mermelstein R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385396.
Copeland W., Shanahan L., Costello E. J., & Angold A. (2011). Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood: A prospective cohort analysis from the Great Smoky Mountains Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 252261.
Grant B. F., Dawson D. A., Stinson F. S., Chou S. P., Dufour M. C., & Pickering R. P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74, 223234.
Guo J., Hawkins J. D., Hill K. G., & Abbott R. D. (2001). Childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 754762.
Hasin D. S., Stinson F. S., Ogburn E., & Grant B. F. (2007). Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 830842.
Jackson K. M., & Sartor C. E. (in press). The natural course of substance use and dependence. In Sher K. J. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of substance use disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jackson K. M., & Sher K. J. (2005). Similarities and differences of longitudinal phenotypes across alternate indices of alcohol involvement: A methodologic comparison of trajectory approaches. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 339351.
Jacob T., Bucholz K. K., Sartor C. E., Howell D. N., & Wood P. K. (2005). Drinking trajectories from adolescence to the mid-forties among alcohol dependent males. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 745755.
King S. M., Iacono W. G., & McGue M. (2004). Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of early substance use. Addiction, 99, 15481559.
Leggio L., Kenna G. A., Fenton M., Bonenfant E., & Swift R. M. (2009). Typologies of alcohol dependence: From Jellinek to genetics and beyond. Neuropsychological Review, 19, 115129.
Little R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 11981202.
McGue M., Iacono W. G., & Krueger R. (2006). The association of early adolescent problem behavior and adult psychopathology: A multivariate behavioral genetic perspective. Behavior Genetics, 36, 591602.
Milne B. J., Caspi A., Harrington H., Poulton R., Rutter M., & Moffitt T. E. (2009). Predictive value of family history on severity of illness: The case for depression, anxiety, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 738747.
Moffitt T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Harrington H., Milne B. J., Melchior M., Goldberg D., et al. (2007). Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: Childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32. Psychological Medicine, 37, 441452.
Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Taylor A., Kokaua J., Milne B. J., Polanczyk G., et al. (2010). How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment. Psychological Medicine, 40, 899909.
Moffitt T. E., Harrington H., Caspi A., Kim-Cohen J., Goldberg D., Gregory A. M., et al. (2007). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: Cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 651660.
Moss H. B., Chen C. M., & Yi H. (2007). Subtypes of alcohol dependence in a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91, 149158.
Moss H. B., Chen C. M., & Yi H. (2010). Prospective follow-up of empirically derived alcohol dependence subtypes in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC): Recovery status, alcohol use disorders and diagnostic criteria, alcohol consumption behavior, health status, and treatment seeking. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 10731083.
Muthén B., & Muthén L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 882891.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2008). Alcohol research: A lifespan perspective (Alcohol Alert No. 74). Rockville, MD: Author.
Patrick C. J., Curtin J. J., & Tellegen A. (2002). Development and validation of a brief form of the multidimensional personality questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 14, 150163.
Robins L. N., Cottler L., Bucholz K. K., & Compton W. (1995). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. St Louis, MO: Washington University, School of Medicine.
Robins L. N., Helzer J. E., Croughan J., & Ratcliff K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381389.
Rutter M., Tizard J., & Whitmore K. (1970). Education, health, and behaviour. New York: Wiley.
Schulenberg J., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Wadsworth K. N., & Johnston L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 289304.
Schulenberg J., Wadsworth K. N., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., & Johnston L. D. (1996). Adolescent risk factors for binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood: Variable- and pattern-centered approaches to change. Developmental Psychology, 32, 659674.
Sher K. J., & Gotham H. J. (1999). Pathological alcohol involvement: A developmental disorder of young adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 933956.
Sher K. J., Jackson K. M., & Steinley D. (2011). Alcohol use trajectories and the ubiquitous cat's cradle: Cause for concern? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 322335.
Vergés A., Jackson K. M., Bucholz K. K., Grant J. D., Trull T. J., Wood P. K., et al. (2011). Deconstructing the age-prevalence curve of alcohol dependence: Why “maturing out” is only a small piece of the puzzle. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0026027
Warner L. A., White H. R., & Johnson V. (2007). Alcohol initiation experiences and family history of alcoholism as predictors of problem-drinking trajectories. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 5665.
Wechsler D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Wells J. E., Horwood L. J., & Fergusson D. M. (2006). Stability and instability in alcohol diagnosis from ages 18 to 21 and ages 21 to 25 years. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81, 157165.
Wennberg P., Andersson T., & Bohman M. (2002). Psychosocial characteristics at age 10; differentiating between adult alcohol use pathways: A prospective longitudinal study. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 115130.
Zucker R. A. (1986). The four alcoholisms: A developmental account of the etiologic process. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 34, 2783.
Zucker R. A. (1994). Pathways to alcohol problems and alcoholism: A developmental account of the evidence for multiple alcoholisms and for contextual contributions to risk. In Zucker R. A., Howard J., & Boyd G. M. (Eds.), The development of alcohol problems: Exploring the biopsychosocial matrix of risk (pp. 255289). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Zucker R. A., Fitzgerald H. E., & Moses H. D. (1995). Emergence of alcohol problems and the several alcoholisms: A developmental perspective on etiologic theory and life course trajectory. In Cicchetti D. & Cohen D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 2, pp. 677711). New York: Wiley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Meier et al. supplementary material
Supplementary references and tables

 PDF (215 KB)
215 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 31 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 219 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.