Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 57
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cavallo, Joel S. Ruiz, Nicholas A. and de Wit, Harriet 2016. Extinction of Conditioned Responses to Methamphetamine-Associated Stimuli in Healthy Humans. Psychopharmacology, Vol. 233, Issue. 13, p. 2489.

    Dishion, Thomas J. and Patterson, Gerald R. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Fareri, Dominic S. and Tottenham, Nim 2016. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 19, p. 233.

    Ferdinand, Nicola K. Becker, Aljoscha M.W. Kray, Jutta and Gehring, William J. 2016. Feedback processing in children and adolescents: Is there a sensitivity for processing rewarding feedback?. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 82, p. 31.

    Hidi, Suzanne 2016. Revisiting the Role of Rewards in Motivation and Learning: Implications of Neuroscientific Research. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 61.

    Meyer, Heidi C. and Bucci, David J. 2016. Negative occasion setting in juvenile rats. Behavioural Processes,

    Rapuano, Kristina M. Huckins, Jeremy F. Sargent, James D. Heatherton, Todd F. and Kelley, William M. 2016. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 26, Issue. 6, p. 2602.

    Sher, Leo 2016. SSRIs have a smaller benefit in paediatric when compared to adult major depressive disorder. Evidence Based Mental Health, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 26.

    Aguiar, Andrea Eubig, Paul and Schantz, Susan 2015. Environmental Hazards and Neurodevelopment.

    Cressman, Victoria L Schobel, Scott A Steinfeld, Sara Ben-David, Shelly Thompson, Judy L Small, Scott A Moore, Holly and Corcoran, Cheryl M 2015. Anhedonia in the psychosis risk syndrome: associations with social impairment and basal orbitofrontal cortical activity. npj Schizophrenia, Vol. 1, p. 15020.

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S. 2015. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 9,

    Fareri, Dominic S. Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Goff, Bonnie Flannery, Jessica Gee, Dylan G. Lumian, Daniel S. Caldera, Christina and Tottenham, Nim 2015. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans. NeuroImage, Vol. 118, p. 422.

    Porter, James N. Roy, Amy K. Benson, Brenda Carlisi, Christina Collins, Paul F. Leibenluft, Ellen Pine, Daniel S. Luciana, Monica and Ernst, Monique 2015. Age-related changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human ventral vs. dorsal striatum from childhood to middle age. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 11, p. 83.

    Yildirim, Bariş O. and Derksen, Jan J.L. 2015. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine functioning in primary psychopathy: A source of within-group heterogeneity. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 229, Issue. 3, p. 633.

    Byrd, Amy L. Loeber, Rolf and Pardini, Dustin A. 2014. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathic Features and Abnormalities in Reward and Punishment Processing in Youth. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 125.

    Caouette, Justin D. and Guyer, Amanda E. 2014. Gaining insight into adolescent vulnerability for social anxiety from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 8, p. 65.

    Christakou, Anastasia 2014. Present simple and continuous: Emergence of self-regulation and contextual sophistication in adolescent decision-making. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 65, p. 302.

    Evans-Chase, Michelle 2014. Addressing Trauma and Psychosocial Development in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth: A Synthesis of the Developmental Neuroscience, Juvenile Justice and Trauma Literature. Laws, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 744.

    Ferdinand, Nicola K. and Kray, Jutta 2014. Developmental changes in performance monitoring: How electrophysiological data can enhance our understanding of error and feedback processing in childhood and adolescence. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 263, p. 122.

    Happé, Francesca and Frith, Uta 2014. Annual Research Review: Towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 6, p. 553.


Reward-related processing in the human brain: Developmental considerations

  • Dominic S. Fareri (a1), Laura N. Martin (a1) and Mauricio R. Delgado (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2008

The pursuit of rewarding experiences motivates everyday human behavior, and can prove beneficial when pleasurable, positive consequences result (e.g., satisfying hunger, earning a paycheck). However, reward seeking may also be maladaptive and lead to risky decisions with potentially negative long-term consequences (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use). Such risky decision making is often observed during adolescence, a time in which important structural and functional refinements occur in the brain's reward circuitry. Although much of the brain develops before adolescence, critical centers for goal-directed behavior, such as frontal corticobasal ganglia networks, continue to mature. These ongoing changes may underlie the increases in risk-taking behavior often observed during adolescence. Further, typical development of these circuits is vital to our ability to make well-informed decisions; atypical development of the human reward circuitry can have severe implications, as is the case in certain clinical and developmental conditions (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). This review focuses on current research probing the neural correlates of reward-related processing across human development supporting the current research hypothesis that immature or atypical corticostriatal circuitry may underlie maladaptive behaviors observed in adolescence.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Mauricio R. Delgado, Department of Psychology, Smith Hall, Room 340, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. K. Anderson , K. Christoff , I. Stappen , D. Panitz , D. G. Ghahremani , G. Glover , (2003). Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 196202.

Y. Assaf , & O. Pasternak (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based white matter mapping in brain research: A review. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 34, 5161.

B. W. Balleine , M. R. Delgado , & O. Hikosaka (2007). The role of the dorsal striatum in reward and decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 81618165.

B. W. Balleine , & A. Dickinson (1998). Goal-directed instrumental action: Contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacology, 37, 407419.

A. Bechara , D. Tranel , & H. Damasio (2000). Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 123 (Pt. 11), 21892202.

J. Berg , J. Dickhaut , & K. McCabe (1995). Trust, reciprocity and social history. Games and Economic Behavior, 10, 122142.

J. M. Bjork , B. Knutson , G. W. Fong , D. M. Caggiano , S. M. Bennett , & D. W. Hommer (2004). Incentive-elicited brain activation in adolescents: Similarities and differences from young adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 17931802.

J. M. Bjork , A. R. Smith , C. L. Danube , & D. W. Hommer (2007). Developmental differences in posterior mesofrontal cortex recruitment by risky rewards. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 48394849.

H. C. Breiter , I. Aharon , D. Kahneman , A. Dale , & P. Shizgal (2001). Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses. Neuron, 30, 619639.

H. C. Breiter , R. L. Gollub , R. M. Weisskoff , D. N. Kennedy , N. Makris , J. D. Berke , (1997). Acute effects of cocaine on human brain activity and emotion. Neuron, 19, 591611.

G. Bush , P. Luu , & M. I. Posner (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 215222.

J. T. Cacioppo , D. G. Amaral , J. J. Blanchard , J. L. Cameron , C. S. Carter , D. Crews , (2007). Social neuroscience: Progress and implications for mental health. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 99123.

B. J. Casey , F. X. Castellanos , J. N. Giedd , W. L. Marsh , S. D. Hamburger , A. B. Schubert , (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 374383.

B. J. Casey , J. D. Cohen , P. Jezzard , R. Turner , D. C. Noll , R. J. Trainor , (1995). Activation of prefrontal cortex in children during a nonspatial working memory task with functional MRI. NeuroImage, 2, 221229.

B. J. Casey , & S. Durston (2006). From behavior to cognition to the brain and back: What have we learned from functional imaging studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 957960.

B. J. Casey , A. Galvan , & T. A. Hare (2005). Changes in cerebral functional organization during cognitive development. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 239244.

B. J. Casey , J. N. Giedd , & K. M. Thomas (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54, 241257.

B. J. Casey , R. M. Jones , & T. A. Hare (2008). The adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 111126.

F. X. Castellanos , J. N. Giedd , W. L. Marsh , S. D. Hamburger , A. C. Vaituzis , D. P. Dickstein , (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607616.

V. S. Caviness Jr., D. N. Kennedy , C. Richelme , J. Rademacher , & P. A. Filipek (1996). The human brain age 7–11 years: A volumetric analysis based on magnetic resonance images. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 726736.

R. A. Chambers , J. R. Taylor , & M. N. Potenza (2003). Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: A critical period of addiction vulnerability. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 10411052.

P. H. Chiu , M. A. Kayali , K. T. Kishida , D. Tomlin , L. G. Klinger , M. R. Klinger , (2008). Self responses along cingulate cortex reveal quantitative neural phenotype for high-functioning autism. Neuron, 57, 463473.

J. D. Cohen , S. D. Forman , T. S. Braver , B. J. Casey , D. Servan-Schreiber , & D. C. Noll (1994). Activation of prefrontal cortex in a nonspatial working memory task. Human Brain Mapping, 1, 293304.

R. Cools , R. A. Barker , B. J. Sahakian , & T. W. Robbins (2001). Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 11361143.

N. D. Daw , J. P. O'Doherty , P. Dayan , B. Seymour , & R. J. Dolan (2006). Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans. Nature, 441, 876879.

P. Dayan , & B. W. Balleine (2002). Reward, motivation, and reinforcement learning. Neuron, 36, 285298.

D. J. de Quervain , U. Fischbacher , V. Treyer , M. Schellhammer , U. Schnyder , A. Buck , (2004). The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science, 305, 12541258.

M. R. Delgado (2007). Reward-related responses in the human striatum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1104, 7088.

M. R. Delgado , R. H. Frank , & E. A. Phelps (2005). Perceptions of moral character modulate the neural systems of reward during the trust game. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 16111618.

M. R. Delgado , H. M. Locke , V. A. Stenger , & J. A. Fiez (2003). Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: Effects of valence and magnitude manipulations. Cognitive Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 2738.

M. R. Delgado , M. M. Miller , S. Inati , & E. A. Phelps (2005). An fMRI study of reward-related probability learning. NeuroImage, 24, 862873.

M. R. Delgado , V. A. Stenger , & J. A. Fiez (2004). Motivation-dependent responses in the human caudate nucleus. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 10221030.

S. Durston , & B. J. Casey (2006). What have we learned about cognitive development from neuroimaging? Neuropsychologia, 44, 21492157.

S. Durston , M. C. Davidson , N. Tottenham , A. Galvan , J. Spicer , J. A. Fossella , (2006). A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development. Developmental Science, 9, 18.

S. Durston , K. M. Thomas , Y. Yang , A. M. Ulug , R. D. Zimmerman , & B. J. Casey (2002). A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control. Developmental Science, 5, F9F16.

S. Durston , N. T. Tottenham , K. M. Thomas , M. C. Davidson , I. M. Eigsti , Y. Yang , (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 871878.

R. Elliott , J. L. Newman , O. A. Longe , & J. F. William Deakin (2004). Instrumental responding for rewards is associated with enhanced neuronal response in subcortical reward systems. NeuroImage, 21, 984990.

M. Ernst , E. E. Nelson , S. Jazbec , E. B. McClure , C. S. Monk , E. Leibenluft , (2005). Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents. NeuroImage, 25, 12791291.

M. Ernst , E. E. Nelson , E. B. McClure , C. S. Monk , S. Munson , N. Eshel , (2004). Choice selection and reward anticipation: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1585–97.

N. Eshel , E. E. Nelson , R. J. Blair , D. S. Pine , & M. Ernst (2007). Neural substrates of choice selection in adults and adolescents: Development of the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Neuropsychologia, 45, 12701279.

S. Fecteau , A. Pascual-Leone , D. H. Zald , P. Liguori , H. Theoret , P. S. Boggio , (2007). Activation of prefrontal cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation reduces appetite for risk during ambiguous decision making. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 62126218.

J. V. Filoteo , W. T. Maddox , A. N. Simmons , A. D. Ing , X. E. Cagigas , S. Matthews , (2005). Cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in rule-based category learning. NeuroReport, 16, 111115.

C. D. Fiorillo , P. N. Tobler , & W. Schultz (2003). Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science, 299, 18981902.

E. E. Forbes , C. J. May , G. J. Siegle , C. D. Ladouceur , N. D. Ryan , C. S. Carter , (2006). Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: An fMRI study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 10311040.

N. A. Fox , H. A. Henderson , P. J. Marshall , K. E. Nichols , & M. M. Ghera (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235262.

A. Galvan , T. A. Hare , M. Davidson , J. Spicer , G. Glover , & B. J. Casey (2005). The role of ventral frontostriatal circuitry in reward-based learning in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 86508656.

A. Galvan , T. A. Hare , C. E. Parra , J. Penn , H. Voss , G. Glover , (2006). Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 68856892.

M. Gardner , & L. Steinberg (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625635.

J. N. Giedd (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 7785.

J. N. Giedd , J. Blumenthal , N. O. Jeffries , F. X. Castellanos , H. Liu , A. Zijdenbos , (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861863.

J. N. Giedd , J. W. Snell , N. Lange , J. C. Rajapakse , B. J. Casey , P. L. Kozuch , (1996). Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of human brain development: Ages 4–18. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 551560.

P. W. Glimcher , & A. Rustichini (2004). Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision. Science, 306, 447452.

J. A. Gottfried , J. O'Doherty , & R. J. Dolan (2003). Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science, 301, 11041107.

J. D. Greene , L. E. Nystrom , A. D. Engell , J. M. Darley , & J. D. Cohen (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44, 389400.

H. J. Groenewegen , & H. B. Uylings (2000). The prefrontal cortex and the integration of sensory, limbic and autonomic information. Progressive Brain Research, 126, 328.

A. E. Guyer , E. E. Nelson , K. Perez-Edgar , M. G. Hardin , R. Roberson-Nay , C. S. Monk , (2006). Striatal functional alteration in adolescents characterized by early childhood behavioral inhibition. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 63996405.

S. N. Haber (2003). The primate basal ganglia: Parallel and integrative networks. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 26, 317330.

A. N. Hampton , & J. P. O'Doherty (2007). Decoding the neural substrates of reward-related decision making with functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United Sates of America, 104, 13771382.

M. G. Hardin , E. Schroth , D. S. Pine , & M. Ernst (2007). Incentive-related modulation of cognitive control in healthy, anxious, and depressed adolescents: Development and psychopathology related differences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 446454.

M. Haruno , & M. Kawato (2006). Different neural correlates of reward expectation and reward expectation error in the putamen and caudate nucleus during stimulus–action–reward association learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 948959.

M. Haruno , T. Kuroda , K. Doya , K. Toyama , M. Kimura , K. Samejima , (2004). A neural correlate of reward-based behavioral learning in caudate nucleus: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a stochastic decision task. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 16601665.

S. A. Huettel (2006). Behavioral, but not reward, risk modulates activation of prefrontal, parietal, and insular cortices. Cognitive Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 6, 141151.

T. L. Jernigan , D. A. Trauner , J. R. Hesselink , & P. A. Tallal (1991). Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence. Brain, 114(Pt. 5), 20372049.

J. W. Kable , & P. W. Glimcher (2007). The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 16251633.

M. Killen (2007). Children's social and moral reasoning about exclusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 3236.

B. King-Casas , D. Tomlin , C. Anen , C. F. Camerer , S. R. Quartz , & P. R. Montague (2005). Getting to know you: Reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science, 308, 7883.

P. Kirsch , A. Schienle , R. Stark , G. Sammer , C. Blecker , B. Walter , (2003). Anticipation of reward in a nonaversive differential conditioning paradigm and the brain reward system: An event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 20, 10861095.

T. Klingberg , M. Hedehus , E. Temple , T. Salz , J. D. Gabrieli , M. E. Moseley , (2000). Microstructure of temporo-parietal white matter as a basis for reading ability: Evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Neuron, 25, 493500.

T. Klingberg , C. J. Vaidya , J. D. Gabrieli , M. E. Moseley , & M. Hedehus (1999). Myelination and organization of the frontal white matter in children: A diffusion tensor MRI study. NeuroReport, 10, 28172821.

B. Knutson , & J. C. Cooper (2005). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction. Current Opinion in Neurology, 18, 411417.

B. Knutson , G. W. Fong , S. M. Bennett , C. M. Adams , & D. Hommer (2003). A region of mesial prefrontal cortex tracks monetarily rewarding outcomes: Characterization with rapid event-related fMRI. NeuroImage, 18, 263272.

B. Knutson , A. Westdorp , E. Kaiser , & D. Hommer (2000). FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. NeuroImage, 12, 2027.

M. L. Kringelbach (2005). The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 691702.

C. M. Kuhnen , & B. Knutson (2005). The neural basis of financial risk taking. Neuron, 47, 763770.

J. E. LeDoux (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 155184.

J. Li , S. M. McClure , B. King-Casas , & P. R. Montague (2006). Policy adjustment in a dynamic economic game. PLoS ONE, 1, e103.

C. Liston , R. Watts , N. Tottenham , M. C. Davidson , S. Niogi , A. M. Ulug , (2006). Frontostriatal microstructure modulates efficient recruitment of cognitive control. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 553560.

G. Loewenstein , S. Rick , & J. D. Cohen (2008). Neuroeconomics. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 647672.

N. K. Logothetis , J. Pauls , M. Augath , T. Trinath , & A. Oeltermann (2001). Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature, 412, 150157.

B. Luna , & J. A. Sweeney (2004). The emergence of collaborative brain function: FMRI studies of the development of response inhibition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 296309.

B. Luna , K. R. Thulborn , D. P. Munoz , E. P. Merriam , K. E. Garver , N. J. Minshew , (2001). Maturation of widely distributed brain function subserves cognitive development. NeuroImage, 13, 786793.

J. C. May , M. R. Delgado , R. E. Dahl , V. A. Stenger , N. D. Ryan , J. A. Fiez , (2004). Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward-related brain circuitry in children and adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 359366.

S. M. McClure , G. S. Berns , & P. R. Montague (2003). Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum. Neuron, 38, 339346.

S. M. McClure , K. M. Ericson , D. I. Laibson , G. Loewenstein , & J. D. Cohen (2007). Time discounting for primary rewards. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 57965804.

S. M. McClure , D. I. Laibson , G. Loewenstein , & J. D. Cohen (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306, 503507.

S. M. McClure , J. Li , D. Tomlin , K. S. Cypert , L. M. Montague , & P. R. Montague (2004). Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks. Neuron, 44, 379387.

F. A. Middleton , & P. L. Strick (2000a). Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: Motor and cognitive circuits. Brain Research Reviews, 31, 236250.

F. A. Middleton , & P. L. Strick (2000b). Basal ganglia output and cognition: Evidence from anatomical, behavioral, and clinical studies. Brain and Cognition, 42, 183200.

E. K. Miller , & J. D. Cohen (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167202.

P. R. Montague , & G. S. Berns (2002). Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation. Neuron, 36, 265284.

E. A. Murray (2007). The amygdala, reward and emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 489497.

S. Nieuwenhuis , D. J. Heslenfeld , N. J. von Geusau , R. B. Mars , C. B. Holroyd , & N. Yeung (2005). Activity in human reward-sensitive brain areas is strongly context dependent. NeuroImage, 25, 13021309.

K. N. Ochsner , & M. D. Lieberman (2001). The emergence of social cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 56, 717734.

J. O'Doherty , P. Dayan , J. Schultz , R. Deichmann , K. Friston , & R. J. Dolan (2004). Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science, 304, 452454.

J. O'Doherty , E. T. Rolls , S. Francis , R. Bowtell , F. McGlone , G. Kobal , (2000). Sensory-specific satiety-related olfactory activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex. NeuroReport, 11, 893897.

J. O'Doherty , J. Winston , H. Critchley , D. Perrett , D. M. Burt , & R. J. Dolan (2003). Beauty in a smile: The role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia, 41, 147155.

J. P. O'Doherty (2004). Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769776.

J. P. O'Doherty , R. Deichmann , H. D. Critchley , & R. J. Dolan (2002). Neural responses during anticipation of a primary taste reward. Neuron, 33, 815826.

T. O'Donoghue , & M. Rabin (2001). Risky behavior among youths: Some issues from behavioral economics. In J. Gruber (Ed.), Risky behavior among youths: An economic analysis (pp. 2967). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

G. Pagnoni , C. F. Zink , P. R. Montague , & G. S. Berns (2002). Activity in human ventral striatum locked to errors of reward prediction. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 9798.

A. Pasupathy , & E. K. Miller (2005). Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Nature, 433, 873876.

M. P. Paulus , K. L. Lovero , M. Wittmann , & D. S. Leland (2008). Reduced behavioral and neural activation in stimulant users to different error rates during decision making. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 10541060.

A. Pfefferbaum , D. H. Mathalon , E. V. Sullivan , J. M. Rawles , R. B. Zipursky , & K. O. Lim (1994). A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Archives of Neurology, 51, 874887.

C. Pierpaoli , P. Jezzard , P. J. Basser , A. Barnett , & G. Di Chiro (1996). Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the human brain. Radiology, 201, 637648.

H. Plassmann , J. O'Doherty , & A. Rangel (2007). Orbitofrontal cortex encodes willingness to pay in everyday economic transactions. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 99849988.

H. Plassmann , J. O'Doherty , B. Shiv , & A. Rangel (2008). Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 10501054.

R. A. Poldrack , E. Temple , A. Protopapas , S. Nagarajan , P. Tallal , M. Merzenich , (2001). Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: Evidence from fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 687697.

K. Preuschoff , S. R. Quartz , & P. Bossaerts (2008). Human insula activation reflects risk prediction errors as well as risk. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 27452752.

A. L. Reiss , M. T. Abrams , H. S. Singer , J. L. Ross , & M. B. Denckla (1996). Brain development, gender and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study. Brain, 119(Pt. 5), 17631774.

T. W. Robbins , & B. J. Everitt (1996). Neurobehavioural mechanisms of reward and motivation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6, 228236.

E. T. Rolls (2000). The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 284294.

E. T. Rolls , Z. J. Sienkiewicz , & S. Yaxley (1989). Hunger modulates the responses to gustatory stimuli of single neurons in the caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. European Journal of Neuroscience, 1, 5360.

M. F. Rushworth , M. E. Walton , S. W. Kennerley , & D. M. Bannerman (2004). Action sets and decisions in the medial frontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8, 410417.

A. G. Sanfey (2007). Social decision-making: Insights from game theory and neuroscience. Science, 318, 598602.

A. G. Sanfey , J. K. Rilling , J. A. Aronson , L. E. Nystrom , & J. D. Cohen (2003). The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. Science, 300, 17551758.

A. Scheres , M. P. Milham , B. Knutson , & F. X. Castellanos (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720724.

T. Schonberg , N. D. Daw , D. Joel , & J. P. O'Doherty (2007). Reinforcement learning signals in the human striatum distinguish learners from nonlearners during reward-based decision making. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1286012867.

W. Schultz (2007). Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30, 259288.

W. Schultz , P. Dayan , & P. R. Montague (1997). A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science, 275, 15931599.

W. Schultz , & A. Dickinson (2000). Neuronal coding of prediction errors. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 473500.

W. Schultz , L. Tremblay , & J. R. Hollerman (2000). Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 272284.

C. A. Seger , & C. M. Cincotta (2005). The roles of the caudate nucleus in human classification learning. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 29412951.

E. R. Sowell , P. M. Thompson , C. J. Holmes , T. L. Jernigan , & A. W. Toga (1999). In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 859861.

L. P. Spear (2000). The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 24, 417463.

L. Tamm , V. Menon , & A. L. Reiss (2002). Maturation of brain function associated with response inhibition. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 12311238.

G. Thut , W. Schultz , U. Roelcke , M. Nienhusmeier , J. Missimer , R. P. Maguire , (1997). Activation of the human brain by monetary reward. NeuroReport, 8, 12251228.

D. Tomlin , M. A. Kayali , B. King-Casas , C. Anen , C. F. Camerer , S. R. Quartz , (2006). Agent-specific responses in the cingulate cortex during economic exchanges. Science, 312, 10471050.

E. Tricomi , M. R. Delgado , B. D. McCandliss , J. L. McClelland , & J. A. Fiez (2006). Performance feedback drives caudate activation in a phonological learning task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 10291043.

E. M. Tricomi , M. R. Delgado , & J. A. Fiez (2004). Modulation of caudate activity by action contingency. Neuron, 41, 281292.

L. van Leijenhorst , E. A. Crone , & S. A. Bunge (2006). Neural correlates of developmental differences in risk estimation and feedback processing. Neuropsychologia, 44, 21582170.

N. D. Volkow , G. J. Wang , J. S. Fowler , J. Logan , M. Jayne , D. Franceschi , (2002). “Nonhedonic” food motivation in humans involves dopamine in the dorsal striatum and methylphenidate amplifies this effect. Synapse, 44, 175180.

P. Voorn , L. J. Vanderschuren , H. J. Groenewegen , T. W. Robbins , & C. M. Pennartz (2004). Putting a spin on the dorsal-ventral divide of the striatum. Trends in Neuroscience, 27, 468474.

M. Watanabe (1996). Reward expectancy in primate prefrontal neurons. Nature, 382, 629632.

J. R. Wickens , C. S. Budd , B. I. Hyland , & G. W. Arbuthnott (2007). Striatal contributions to reward and decision making: Making sense of regional variations in a reiterated processing matrix. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1104, 192212.

R. A. Wise (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nataur Reviews. Neuroscience, 5, 483494.

C. F. Zink , G. Pagnoni , M. E. Martin-Skurski , J. C. Chappelow , & G. S. Berns (2004). Human striatal responses to monetary reward depend on saliency. Neuron, 42, 509517.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *