Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 82
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ann Priester, Mary Cole, Trevor Lynch, Shannon M. and DeHart, Dana D. 2016. The Wiley Handbook on the Psychology of Violence.


    Bijleveld, Catrien Hill, Jessica and Hendriks, Jan 2016. Women and Children as Victims and Offenders: Background, Prevention, Reintegration.


    Daray, Federico M. Rojas, Sasha M. Bridges, Ana J. Badour, Christal L. Grendas, Leandro Rodante, Demián Puppo, Soledad and Rebok, Federico 2016. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 58, p. 91.


    de Tychey, Claude Vandelet, Elena Laurent, Mélanie Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle Prudent, Cécile and Evrard, Renaud 2016. Child Sexual Abuse, Baby Gender, and Intergenerational Psychic Transmission: An Exploratory, Projective Psychoanalytic Approach. The Psychoanalytic Review, Vol. 103, Issue. 2, p. 221.


    Dell, Paul F. 2016. Is high hypnotizability a necessary diathesis for pathological dissociation?. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, p. 1.


    Dion, Jacinthe Matte-Gagné, Célia Daigneault, Isabelle Blackburn, Marie-Eve Hébert, Martine McDuff, Pierre Auclair, Julie Veillette, Suzanne and Perron, Michel 2016. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 189, p. 336.


    Kerig, Patricia K. Modrowski, Crosby A. Mozley, Michaela M. and Becker, Stephen P. 2016. Encyclopedia of Adolescence.


    Langevin, Rachel Hébert, Martine Allard-Dansereau, Claire and Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude 2016. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers: The Contribution of Parental Factors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 180.


    Langevin, Rachel Cossette, Louise and Hébert, Martine 2016. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Lund, Jessie I. Day, Kimberly L. Schmidt, Louis A. Saigal, Saroj and Van Lieshout, Ryan J. 2016. Adult mental health outcomes of child sexual abuse survivors born at extremely low birth weight. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 59, p. 36.


    Mathews, Ben Lee, Xing Ju and Norman, Rosana E. 2016. Impact of a new mandatory reporting law on reporting and identification of child sexual abuse: A seven year time trend analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 56, p. 62.


    McLaughlin, Katie A. 2016. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 45, Issue. 3, p. 361.


    Ports, Katie A. Ford, Derek C. and Merrick, Melissa T. 2016. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual victimization in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 51, p. 313.


    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily Hammond, Ivy Eastman, Andrea Lane McCroskey, Jacquelyn and Webster, Daniel 2016. Extended Foster Care for Transition-Age Youth: An Opportunity for Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 58, Issue. 4, p. 485.


    Rogers, Paul Lowe, Michelle and Reddington, Katie 2016. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim’s Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Sheehan, Rosemary 2016. Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Implementing a Specialist Judicial List. Australian Social Work, p. 1.


    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier Godbout, Natacha Sabourin, Stéphane Briere, John Lussier, Yvan and Runtz, Marsha 2016. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol. 42, Issue. 2, p. 341.


    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier Dugal, Caroline Poirier Stewart, Rébécca Godbout, Natacha Sabourin, Stéphane Lussier, Yvan and Briere, John 2016. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 53, Issue. 4-5, p. 614.


    van der Kolk, Bessel 2016. Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry - a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 267.


    Witt, Andreas Münzer, Annika Ganser, Helene G. Fegert, Jörg M. Goldbeck, Lutz and Plener, Paul L. 2016. Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: Association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 57, p. 1.


    ×

The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

  • Penelope K. Trickett (a1), Jennie G. Noll (a2) and Frank W. Putnam (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579411000174
  • Published online: 18 April 2011
Abstract
Abstract

This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent posttraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Penelope K. Trickett, School of Social Work, Montgomery Ross Fisher Building, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90899-0411; E-mail: pennyt@usc.edu.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. G. Armstrong , F. W. Putnam , E. B. Carlson , D. Z. Libero , & S. R. Smith (1997). Development and validation of a measure of adolescent dissociation: The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 491497.

J. Barnes , J. Noll , F. Putnam , & P. Trickett (2009). Sexual and physical revictimization among victims of severe childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 412420.

A. M. Bauer , J. A. Quas , & W. T. Boyce (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113.

A. S. Beaudoin , N. Carbonneau , N. Godbout , S. Bouchard , & S. Sabourin (2007). Validation préliminaire du Questionnaire d'Activités et d'Attitudes à l'Égard de la Sexualité [Preliminary validation of the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire]. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 39, 301306.

R. Q. Bell (1953). Convergence: An accelerated longitudinal approach. Child Development, 24, 145152.

J. Belsky , L. Steinberg , & P. Draper (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647670.

B. Bergman , & B. Brismar (1994). Hormone levels and personality traits in abusive and suicidal male alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 311316.

G. A. Bonanno , D. M. Colak , D. Keltner , M. N. Shiota , A. Papa , J. G. Noll , (2007). Context matters: The benefits and costs of expressing positive emotion among survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Emotion, 7, 824837.

G. A. Bonanno , D. Keltner , J. G. Noll , F. W. Putnam , P. K. Trickett , J. LeJeune , (2002). When the face reveals what words do not: Facial expressions of emotion, smiling, and the willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 94110.

J. Briere , & M. Runtz (1987). Post-sexual abuse trauma: Data and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 367379.

V. G. Carrion , C. F. Weems , R. D. Ray , B. Glaser , D. Hessl , & A. L. Reiss (2002). Diurnal salivary cortisol in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 575582.

R. B. Cattell , & J. L. Horn (1978). A check on the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence with description of new subtest designs. Journal of Educational Measurement, 15, 139164.

M. D. De Bellis , G. P. Chrousos , L. D. Dorn , L. Burke , K. Helmers , M. A. Kling , (1994). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation in sexually abused girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78, 249255.

S. A. Dunlop , M. A. Archer , J. A. Quinlivan , L. D. Beazley , & J. P. Newnham (1997). Repeated prenatal corticosteroids delay myelination in the ovine central nervous system. Journal of Maternal–Fetal Medicine, 6, 309313.

B. J. Ellis , S. McFadyen-Ketchum , K. A. Dodge , G. S. Pettit , & J. E. Bates (1999). Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: A longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 387401.

S. Farnfield , A. Hautamäki , P. Nørbech , & N. Sahhar (2010). DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 313328.

V. J. Felitti , R. F. Anda , D. Nordenberg , D. F. Williamson , A. M. Spitz , V. Edwards , (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245258.

D. M. Fergusson , L. J. Horwood , & L. J. Woodward (2000). The stability of child abuse reports: A longitudinal study of the reporting behavior of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 30, 529544.

J. B. Greenberg (2001). Childhood sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adults: A review of and implications for STD/HIV programmes. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 12, 777783.

C. H. Grella , & V. Joshi (2003). Treatment processes and outcomes among adolescents with a history of abuse who are in drug treatment. Child Maltreatment, 8, 718.

M. R. Gunnar , C. A. Gonzalez , B. L. Goodlin , & S. Levine (1981). Behavioral and pituitary–adrenal responses during a prolonged separation period in infant rhesus macaques. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6, 6575.

S. Harter (1985). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 8797.

C. Heim , U. Ehlert , & D. H. Hellhammer (2000). The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 135.

K. S. Howard , & J. Brooks-Gunn (2009). The role of home-visiting programs in preventing child abuse and neglect. The Future of Children, 19, 119146.

K. Kim , J. G. Noll , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2007). Psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls: Findings from a prospective, multigenerational study. Child Maltreatment, 12, 338351.

K. Kim , P. K. Trickett , & F. W. Putnam (2010). Childhood experiences of sexual abuse and later parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused and comparison girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 610622.

L. E. Kwako , J. G. Noll , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2010). Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 407422.

J. Mendle , E. Turkheimer , & R. E. Emery (2007). Detrimental psychological outcomes associated with early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Developmental Review, 27, 151171.

T. L. Messman , & P. J. Long (1996). Child sexual abuse and its relationship to revictimization in adult women: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 397420.

C. Mikton , & A. Butchart (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 353361.

C. Negrao , G. A. Bonanno , J. G. Noll , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2005). Shame, humiliation, and childhood sexual abuse: Comparing discrete and clinical theories of emotion. Child Maltreatment, 10, 350363.

S. Negriff , J. G. Noll , C. E. Shenk , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2010). Associations between nonverbal behaviors and subsequent sexual attitudes and behaviors of sexually abused and comparison girls. Child Maltreatment, 15, 180189.

C. B. Nemeroff , C. M. Heim , M. E. Thase , D. N. Klein , A. J. Rush , A. F. Schatzberg , (2003). Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 1429314296.

A. Neumann , T. N. Ojong , P. K. Yanes , L. Tumiel-Berhalter , G. E. Daigler , & R. D. Blondell (2010). Differences between adolescents who complete and fail to complete residential substance abuse treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 29, 427435.

J. G. Noll , L. A. Horowitz , G. A. Bonanno , P. K. Trickett , & F. W. Putnam (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 14521471.

J. G. Noll , J. Schulkin , P. K. Trickett , E. J. Susman , L. Breech , & F. W. Putnam (2007). Differential pathways to preterm delivery for sexually abused and comparison women. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 12381248.

J. G. Noll , C. E. Shenk , M. T. Yeh , J. Ji , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2010). Receptive language and educational attainment for sexually abused females. Pediatrics, 126, e615e622.

J. G. Noll , P. K. Trickett , W. W. Harris , & F. W. Putnam (2009). The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 424449.

J. G. Noll , P. K. Trickett , & F. W. Putnam (2000). Social network constellation and sexuality of sexually abused and comparison girls in childhood and adolescence. Child Maltreatment, 5, 323337.

J. G. Noll , P. K. Trickett , E. J. Susman , & F. W. Putnam (2006). Sleep disturbances and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 469480.

J. G. Noll , M. H. Zeller , P. K. Trickett , & F. W. Putnam (2007). Obesity risk for female victims of childhood sexual abuse: A prospective study. Pediatrics, 120, e61e67.

D. Olds , H. J. Kitzman , R. E. Cole , C. A. Hanks , K. J. Arcoleo , E. A. Anson , (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on maternal life course and government spending: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics Adolescent Medicine, 164, 419424.

B. W. Pence (2009). The impact of mental health and traumatic life experiences on antiretroviral treatment outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 63, 636640.

F. W. Putnam , K. Helmers , L. A. Horowitz , & P. K. Trickett (1995). Hypnotizability and dissociativity in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 645655.

F. W. Putnam , K. Helmers , & P. K. Trickett (1993). Development, reliability, and validity of a child dissociation scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 731741.

C. L. Raison , & A. H. Miller (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 15541565.

W. Reich (2000). Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 5966.

G. M. Rosen , & G. C. Davison (2003). Psychology should list empirically supported principles of change (ESPs) and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages. Behavior Modification, 27, 300312.

D. E. H. Russell (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.

C. E. Shenk , J. G. Noll , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2010). A prospective examination of the role of childhood sexual abuse and physiological asymmetry in the development of psychopathology. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 752761.

A. E. Sickel , J. G. Noll , P. J. Moore , F. W. Putnam , & P. K. Trickett (2002). The long-term physical health and healthcare utilization of women who were sexually abused as children. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 583597.

W. K. Silverman , C. D. Ortiz , C. Viswesvaran , B. J. Burns , D. J. Kolko , F. W. Putnam , (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 156183.

E. J. Susman (2006). Psychobiology of persistent antisocial behavior: Stress, early vulnerabilities and the attenuation hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 376389.

A. D. Theodore , J. J. Chang , D. K. Runyan , W. M. Hunter , S. I. Bangdiwala , & R. Agans (2005). Epidemiologic features of the physical and sexual maltreatment of children in the Carolinas. Pediatrics, 115, e331e337.

P. K. Trickett (1983). The interaction of cognitive styles and classroom environment in determining first-graders' behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 4, 4364.

P. K. Trickett , & F. W. Putnam (1993). Impact of child sexual abuse on females: Toward a developmental, psychobiological integration. Psychological Science, 4, 8187.

J. M. Westfall , J. Mold & L. Fagnan (2007). Practice-based research—“Blue Highways” on the NIH Roadmap. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 403413.

L. M. Williams (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: A prospective study of women's memories of child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 11671176.

D. F. Williamson , T. J. Thompson , R. F. Anda , W. H. Dietz , & V. Felitti (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 10751082.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×