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Analogical Reasoning as an Inference Scheme

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 August 2021

Bernard Walliser
Affiliation:
EHESS (54 Bd Raspail, Paris, France)
Denis Zwirn
Affiliation:
Independant Scholar
Hervé Zwirn*
Affiliation:
CMLA (ENS Paris Saclay, 61 avenue du Président Wilson, 94235 Cachan, France) and IHPST (CNRS, ENS Ulm, 13 rue du Four, 75006, Paris, France)
*
*Corresponding author: herve.zwirn@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite its importance in various fields, analogical reasoning has not yet received a unified formal representation. Our contribution proposes a general scheme of inference that is compatible with different types of logic (deductive, probabilistic, non-monotonic). Firstly, analogical assessment precisely defines the similarity of two objects according to their properties, in a relative rather than absolute way. Secondly, analogical inference transfers a new property from one object to a similar one, thanks to an over-hypothesis linking two sets of properties. The belief strength in the conclusion is then directly related to the belief strength in this meta-hypothesis.

Résumé

Résumé

En dépit de son importance dans divers domaines, le raisonnement analogique n'a pas encore reçu de représentation formelle unifiée. Notre contribution propose un schéma d'inférence général, compatible avec différentes logiques (déductive, probabiliste, non monotone). Premièrement, un énoncé analogique définit précisément la similarité entre deux objets en fonction de leurs propriétés, de façon relative et non absolue. Deuxièmement, une inférence analogique transfère une propriété nouvelle d'un objet à un objet similaire, grâce à une hypothèse d'arrière-plan qui relie deux ensembles de propriétés. Le degré de croyance dans la conclusion est alors directement relié au degré de croyance dans cette méta-hypothèse.

Type
Original Article/Article original
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Canadian Philosophical Association/Publié par Cambridge University Press au nom de l’Association canadienne de philosophie

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