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Developing a Tabletop Exercise to Test Community Resilience: Lessons from the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

  • Anita Chandra (a1), Malcolm V. Williams (a2), Christian Lopez (a2), Jennifer Tang (a3), David Eisenman (a4) and Aizita Magana (a5)...

Abstract

Objective

We aimed to develop and test a community resilience tabletop exercise to assess progress in community resilience and to provide an opportunity for quality improvement and capacity building.

Methods

A tabletop exercise was developed for the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) project by using an extended heat wave scenario with health and infrastructure consequences. The tabletop was administered to preparedness only (control) and resilience (intervention) coalitions during the summer of 2014. Each exercise lasted approximately 2 hours. The coalitions and LACCDR study team members independently rated each exercise to assess 4 resilience levers (partnership, engagement, self-sufficiency, and education). Resilience coalitions received more detailed feedback in the form of recommendations for improvement.

Results

The resilience coalitions performed the same or better than the preparedness coalitions on the partnership and self-sufficiency levers. Most coalitions did not have enough (both quantity and type) of the partner organizations needed for an escalating heat wave or changing conditions or enough engagement of organizations representing at-risk populations. Coalitions also lacked educational materials to cover topics as far ranging as heat to power outages to psychological impacts of disaster.

Conclusion

A tabletop exercise can be used to stress and test resilience-based capacities, with particular attention to a community’s ability to leverage a range of partnerships and other assets to confront a slowly evolving but multifactorial emergency. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:484–488)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to Anita Chandra, DrPH, RAND Corporation, Arlington, VA (e-mail: Chandra@rand.org).

References

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1. Chandra, A, Acosta, J, Stern, S, et al. Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; 2011.
2. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). National Disaster Recovery Framework: Strengthening Disaster Recovery for the Nation. Washington, DC: FEMA; 2011; http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1820-25045-5325/508_ndrf.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2015.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning. CDC website. http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/capabilities/. Accessed July 28, 2015.
4. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action. FDOC 104-008-1. Washington, DC: FEMA; 2011; http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1813-25045-0649/whole_community_dec2011__2_.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2015.
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6. Mobula, LM, Jacquet, GA, Weinhauer, K, et al. Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti. Am J Disaster Med. 2013;8(4):235-241. doi: 10.5055/ajdm.2013.0129.
7. Frahm, KA, Gardner, PJ, Brown, LM, et al. Community-based disaster coalition training. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2014;20(suppl 5):S111-S117. doi: 10.1097/phh.0000000000000058.
8. Agboola, F, McCarthy, T, Biddinger, PD. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2013;19(suppl 2):S77-S83. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0b013e31828ecd84.
9. Klima, DA, Seiler, SH, Peterson, JB, et al. Full-scale regional exercises: closing the gaps in disaster preparedness. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(3):592-597; discussion 597-598. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318265cbb2.
10. Chandra, A, Williams, M, Plough, A, et al. Getting actionable about community resilience: The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(7):1181-1189.
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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
  • ISSN: 1935-7893
  • EISSN: 1938-744X
  • URL: /core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness
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