1.Bautista, E, Chotpitayasunondh, T, Gao, Z, et alWriting Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza. Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2010;362 (18):1708–1719.
2.Siston, AM, Rasmussen, SA, Honein, MA, et alPandemic H1N1 Influenza in Pregnancy Working Group. Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States. JAMA. 2010;303 (15):1517–1525.
3.Fonseca, VP, Davis, M, Wing, R, et alCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infections in three pregnant women - United States, April-May 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58 (18):497–500.
4.Jamieson, DJ, Honein, MA, Rasmussen, SA, et alNovel Influenza A (H1N1) Pregnancy Working Group. H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during pregnancy in the USA. Lancet. 2009;374 (9688):451–458.
5.Louie, JK, Acosta, M, Jamieson, DJ, Honein, MACalifornia Pandemic (H1N1) Working Group. Severe 2009 H1N1 influenza in pregnant and postpartum women in California. N Engl J Med. 2010;362 (1):27–35.
6.Creanga, AA, Johnson, TF, Graitcer, SB, et alSeverity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115 (4):717–726.
7.ANZIC Influenza Investigators and Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant and postpartum women: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2010;340:c1279.
8.Han, K, Zhu, X, He, F, et alLack of airborne transmission during outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among tour group members, China, June 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15 (10):1578–1581.
9.Cauchemez, S, Donnelly, CA, Reed, C, et alHousehold transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2009;361 (27):2619–2627.
10.Thacker, E, Janke, B.Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(suppl 1)S19–S24.
11.Witkop, CT, Duffy, MR, Macias, EA, et alNovel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak at the U.S. Air Force Academy: epidemiology and viral shedding duration. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38 (2):121–126.
12.Cao, B, Li, XW, Mao, Y, et alNational Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Clinical Investigation Group of China. Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. N Engl J Med. 2009;361 (26):2507–2517.
13.Lewis, D, Wilson, CDevelopmental immunology and the role of host defenses in neonatal susceptibility to infection. In: Remington J, Klein J, eds. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: WB Saunders; 2001:25-38.
14.Brady, MT.Health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33 (5):268–275.
15.Garvy, B.Host defense against pulmonary infection in neonates. Clin Appl Immunol Rev. 2003;4:205–223.
16.Potter, RC, Gonik, B.Prevention of influenza in mothers and infants. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8 (2):149–152.
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated Interim Recommendations for the Use of Antiviral Medications in the Treatment and Prevention of Influenza for the 2009-2010 Season. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm. Published 2009. Accessed September 11, 2009.
18.Bhat, N, Wright, JG, Broder, KR, et alInfluenza Special Investigations Team. Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003-2004. N Engl J Med. 2005;353 (24):2559–2567.
19.Coffin, SE, Zaoutis, TE, Rosenquist, AB, et alIncidence, complications, and risk factors for prolonged stay in children hospitalized with community-acquired influenza. Pediatrics. 2007;119 (4):740–748.
20.Iwane, MK, Edwards, KM, Szilagyi, PG, et alNew Vaccine Surveillance Network. Population-based surveillance for hospitalizations associated with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses among young children. Pediatrics. 2004;113 (6):1758–1764.
21.Izurieta, HS, Thompson, WW, Kramarz, P, et alInfluenza and the rates of hospitalization for respiratory disease among infants and young children. N Engl J Med. 2000;342 (4):232–239.
22.Neuzil, KM, Mellen, BG, Wright, PF, Mitchel, EF Jr, Griffin, MR.The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. N Engl J Med. 2000;342 (4):225–231.
23.O’Brien, MA, Uyeki, TM, Shay, DK, et alIncidence of outpatient visits and hospitalizations related to influenza in infants and young children. Pediatrics. 2004;113 (3, pt 1):585–593.
24.Poehling, KA, Edwards, KM, Weinberg, GA, et alNew Vaccine Surveillance Network. The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N Engl J Med. 2006;355 (1):31–40.
25.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: influenza activity - United States, August 30, 2009-March 27, 2010, and composition of the 2010-11 influenza vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59 (14):423–430.
26.Libster, R, Bugna, J, Coviello, S, et alPediatric hospitalizations associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Argentina. N Engl J Med. 2010;362 (1):45–55.
27.van 't Klooster, TM, Wielders, CC, Donker, T, et alSurveillance of hospitalisations for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in the Netherlands, 5 June - 31 December 2009. Euro Surveill. 2010;15 2.
28.Irving, WL, James, DK, Stephenson, T, et alInfluenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: a clinical and seroepidemiological study. BJOG. 2000;107 (10):1282–1289.
29. McGregor, JA, Burns, JC, Levin, MJ, Burlington, B, Meiklejohn, G.Transplacental passage of influenza A/Bangkok (H3N2) mimicking amniotic fluid infection syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984;149 (8):856–859.
30.Zou, S.Potential impact of pandemic influenza on blood safety and availability. Transfus Med Rev. 2006;20 (3):181–189.
31.Gu, J, Xie, Z, Gao, Z, et alH5N1 infection of the respiratory tract and beyond: a molecular pathology study. Lancet. 2007;370 (9593):1137–1145.
32.Yawn, DH, Pyeatte, JC, Joseph, JM, Eichler, SL, Garcia-Bunuel, R.Transplacental transfer of influenza virus. JAMA. 1971;216 (6):1022–1023.
33.Rasmussen, SA, Hayes, EB, Jamieson, DJ, O’Leary, DR.Emerging infections and pregnancy: assessing the impact on the embryo or fetus. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A (24):2896–2903.
34.Dulyachai, W, Makkoch, J, Rianthavorn, P, et alPerinatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16 (2):343–344.
35.Glezen, WP, Taber, LH, Frank, AL, Gruber, WC, Piedra, PA.Influenza virus infections in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16 (11):1065–1068.
36.van den Dungen, FA, van Furth, AM, Fetter, WP, Zaaijer, HL, van Elburg, RM.Fatal case of influenza B virus pneumonia in a preterm neonate. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20 (1):82–84.
37.Yusuf, K, Soraisham, AS, Fonseca, K.Fatal influenza B virus pneumonia in a preterm neonate: case report and review of the literature. J Perinatol. 2007;27 (10):623–625.
38.Cunha, BA, Thekkel, V, Krilov, L.Nosocomial swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: lessons learned from an illustrative case. J Hosp Infect. 2010;74 (3):278–281.
39.Verboon-Maciolek, MA, Krediet, TG, Gerards, LJ, Fleer, A, van Loon, TM.Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of viral infections in a neonatal intensive care unit during a 12-year period. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24 (10):901–904.
40.Ravenscroft, JL, Weisman, LENosocomial viral infections in the neonate. In: Basow DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Massachusetts: UpToDate; 2009.
41.Cunney, RJ, Bialachowski, A, Thornley, D, Smaill, FM, Pennie, RA.An outbreak of influenza A in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21 (7):449–454.
42.Munoz, FM, Campbell, JR, Atmar, RL, et alInfluenza A virus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1999;18 (9):811–815.
43.Sagrera, X, Ginovart, G, Raspall, F, et alOutbreaks of influenza A virus infection in neonatal intensive care units. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21 (3):196–200.
44.National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58 (RR-10):1–8.
45.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim results: Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage–United States, October-December 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1–5.
46.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: practices among obstetrician-gynecologists--United States, 2003-04 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54 (41):1050–1052.
47.Tamma, PD, Ault, KA, del Rio, C, Steinhoff, MC, Halsey, NA, Omer, SB.Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201 (6):547–552.
48.Zaman, K, Roy, E, Arifeen, SE, et alEffectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants. N Engl J Med. 2008;359 (15):1555–1564.
49.Eick, AA, Uyeki, TM, Klimov, A, et alMaternal influenza vaccination and effect on influenza virus infection in young infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165 (2):104–111.
50.Arifeen, S, Black, RE, Antelman, G, Baqui, A, Caulfield, L, Becker, S.Exclusive breastfeeding reduces acute respiratory infection and diarrhea deaths among infants in Dhaka slums. Pediatrics. 2001;108 (4):E67.
51.Chantry, CJ, Howard, CR, Auinger, P.Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children. Pediatrics. 2006;117 (2):425–432.
52.Howie, PW, Forsyth, JS, Ogston, SA, Clark, A, Florey, CD.Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. BMJ. 1990;300 (6716):11–16.
53.Quigley, MA, Kelly, YJ, Sacker, A.Breastfeeding and hospitalization for diarrheal and respiratory infection in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study. Pediatrics. 2007;119 (4):e837–e842.
54.Ip, S, Chung, M, Raman, G, Trikalinos, TA, Lau, J.A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence report on breastfeeding in developed countries. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4(suppl 1)S17–S30.
55.Bahl, R, Frost, C, Kirkwood, BR, et alInfant feeding patterns and risks of death and hospitalization in the first half of infancy: multicentre cohort study. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83 (6):418–426.
56.Hanson, L.Immunobiology of Human Milk: How Breastfeeding Protects Babies. Amarillo, Texas: Pharmasoft Publishing; 2004.
57.Tanaka, T, Nakajima, K, Murashima, A, Garcia-Bournissen, F, Koren, G, Ito, S.Safety of neuraminidase inhibitors against novel influenza A (H1N1) in pregnant and breastfeeding women. CMAJ. 2009;181 (1-2):55–58.
58.Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 361: Breastfeeding: maternal and infant aspects. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;1092, pt 1479–480.
59.U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Primary care interventions to promote breastfeeding: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149 (8):560–564.
60.Gartner, LM, Morton, J, Lawrence, RA, et alAmerican Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005;115 (2):496–506.
61.To, KK, Hung, IF, Li, IW, et alDelayed clearance of viral load and marked cytokine activation in severe cases of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50 (6):850–859.
62.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim Guidance: Considerations Regarding 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Intrapartum and Postpartum Hospital Settings. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance/obstetric.htm. Published 2009. Accessed December 29, 2009.