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Roger de Chabannes (d. 1025), cantor of St Martial, Limoges*

  • James Grier (a1)
Extract

We know only two things with certainty about the life of Roger de Chabannes. He was a monk at the abbey of St Martial in Limoges by the year 1010, at which time he served as the teacher of his nephew, Adémar de Chabannes. And when he died, on 26 April 1025, he held the position of the abbey's cantor. Both pieces of information come to us from Adémar, monk at St Cybard in Angoulême, historian, homilist and tempestuous polemicist in the campaign to win recognition for St Martial as an apostle. Other evidence, which also may well originate from Adémar, attests to Roger's death date and office.

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1 de Chabannes, Adémar, Chronicon, 3.46, ed. Chavanon, J., Chronique, Collection de Textes pour Servir à l'Étude de l'Histoire (Paris, 1897), p. 168 and Lair, J., Études critiques sur divers textes des Xe et XIe siècles, ii, Historia d'Adémar de Chabannes (Paris, 1899), p. 190. The date is given in the next paragraph, Chronicon, 3.47, ed. Chavanon, , p. 169; and Lair, , Historia, p. 191. The three recensions of this work do not agree in all particulars: see Lair, , Historia, esp. pp. 92104, 236–7, 277–84, who also prints in parallel columns all versions of 3.16–66 (pp. 104–235) and 3.66–70 (pp. 237–45). Elsewhere, Adémar calls Roger ‘meus magister’: [Adémar de Chabannes], Commemoratio abbatum lemouicensium basilice S. Marcialis apostoli, ed. Duplès-Agier, H., Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges (Paris, 1874), p. 8. Both texts will be newly edited in Adémar's Complete Works, to appear in the series Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis.

2 Roger as cantor: Adémar, , Chronicon, 3.61, ed. Chavanon, , pp. 186–7; Lair, , Historia, pp. 226–7. Death date: [Adémar], Commemoratio abbatum, ed. Duplès-Agier, , p. 8.

3 On Adémar's biography, see Saltet, L., ‘Une discussion sur Saint Martial entre un Lombard et un Limousin en 1029’, Bulletin de Littérature Ecclésiastique, 26 (1925), pp. 161-86, 279302; ‘Une prétendue lettre de Jean XIX sur Saint Martial fabriquée par Adémar de Chabannes’, ibid., 27 (1926), pp. 117–39; ‘Les faux d'Adémar de Chabannes: Prétendues décisions sur Saint Martial au concile de Bourges du ler novembre 1031’, ibid., 27 (1926), pp. 145–60; and ‘Un cas de mythomanie historique bien documented Adémar de Chabannes (988–1034)’, ibid., 32 (1931), pp. 149–65; and Landes, R., ‘The Making of a Medieval Historian: Ademar of Chabannes and Aquitaine at the Turn of the Millenium’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1984). For further bibliography, see Grier, J., ‘Ecce sanctum quem Deus elegit Marcialem apostolum: Adémar de Chabannes and the Tropes for the Feast of Saint Martial’, Beyond the Moon: Festschrift Luther Dittmer, ed. Gillingham, B. and Merkley, P., Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 53 (Ottawa, 1990), p. 28, n. 2.

4 Limoges, Musée Municipal, Inv. Arc. L. 155; see Marcheix, M. and Perrier, J., Guide du Musée Municipal: Collection Archéologique (Limoges, 1969), no. 245, p. 111. Its discovery is announced in [Ardant, M., ‘Médailles et monnaies trouvées à Saint-Martial de Limoges’, Mémoires de la Société Royale des Antiquitaires de France, 14 (1838), pp. 165–6. See also Ardant, , ‘Note sur le tombeau du chantre Roger, retiré des fouilles de l'église de St-Martial, à Limoges’, Bulletin de la Société Royale d'Agriculture; Sciences et Arts de Limoges, 18 (1840), pp. 30–2; [J. R. A.]Texier, , Manuel d'épigraphie suivi du recueil des inscriptions du Limousin (Poitiers, 1851), no. 53, pp. 113–15; Castaigne, E., ‘Dissertation sur le lieu de naissance et sur la famille du chroniqueur Adémar, moine de l'Abbaye de Saint-Cybard ďAngoulême, faussement surnommé de Chabanais, né vers 988 et mort vers 1030’, Bulletin de la Société Archéologique et Historique de la Charente. 4 (1850), pp. 83–4 and n. 8; Favreau, R., Michaud, J. and Labande, E.-R., Corpus des inscriptions de la France médiévale, II, Limousin: Corrèze, Creuse, Haute-Vienne (Poitiers, 1978), HV 51, pp. 153–4 and pl. XXVII, figs. 54–5; and Lemaître, J.-L., Mourir à Saint-Martial: La commémoration des morts et les obituaires à Saint-Martial de Limoges du XIe au XIIe siècle (Paris, 1989), pp. 335–6, 478–9.

5 Pa 5257 dates from the late eleventh century, after the Cluniac takeover of St Martial in 1063; see Lemaître, J.-L., Répertoire des documents nécrologiques français, 2 vols., Recueil des Historiens de la France, Obituaires 7 (Paris, 1980), ii, no. 2764, p. 1140; idem, Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 119–20, 233–40, 293–300; and Synopse der cluniacensischen Necrologien, ed. Wollasch, J., 2 vols., Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften 39 (Munich, 1982), i, p. 41. For the entry, see Synopse, ed. Wollasch, , ii, p. 232; Lemaître, , Mourir à Saint-Martial, p. 478 and n. 15 (p. 493), gives, incorrectly, fol. 53r.

6 Lemaîte, , Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 478–9, where he further notes that the entry does not recur in the two later necrologies found in Pa 5243 (late eleventh century; fols. 93–136) and Pa 5245 (late twelfth century; fols. 136–63). Both, however, record the name Rotcherius, which could simply be a variant spelling, for this date (Pa 5243, fol. 107r; Pa 5245, fol. 145v); on the former, see Synopse, ed. Wollasch, , ii, p. 232. Adémar also erected a funerary plaque for St Martial: Limoges, Musée Municipal, Inv. Arc. L. 37; see Marcheix, and Perrier, , Guide du Musée Municipal: Collection Archéologique, no. 136, p. 63. See also Favreau, et al. , Corpus des inscriptions, ii, Limousin, HV 52, pp. 154–6 and pl. XXVIII, figs. 56–7; and Lemaître, , Mourir à Saint-Martial, p. 491.

7 Some of the marginal notations in Pa 5239 were written by Adémar; see Gaborit-Chopin, D., La décoration des manuscrits à Saint-Martial de Limoges et en Limousin du IXe au XIIe siècle, Mémoires et Documents Publiés par la Société de l'Ècole des Chartes 17 (Paris and Geneva, 1969), p. 204; and Landes, ‘The Making of a Medieval Historian’, pp. 128–35. That concerning Roger is not in his hand.

8 This manuscript, together with Pa 1338, fols. 1–143, constitutes a single proser. For a reconstruction of the original manuscript, see Analecta hymnica (hereafter AH), 55 vols., ed. Dreves, G. M., Blume, C. and Bannister, H. M. (Leipzig, 18861922), vii, pp. 68; Crocker, R. L., ‘The Repertoire of Proses at Saint Martial de Limoges (Tenth and Eleventh Centuries)’, 2 vols. (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1957), i, pp. 127–50; Chailley, J., ‘Les anciens tropaires et séquentiaires de l'ećole de Saint-Martial de Limoges (Xe-XIe s.)’, Études Grégoriennes, 2 (1957), pp. 179–80; idem, L'école musicale de Saint Martial de Limoges jusqu'à la fin du Xle siècle (Paris, 1960), pp. 96–8; and Husmann, H., Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, Répertoire International des Sources Musicales B V1 (Munich, 1964), pp. 136–7. I tentatively transcribe the note as ‘Rotgerius in hoc peccator’; Delisle's, L. transcription, ‘Les manuscrits de Saint-Martial de Limoges: Réimpression textuelle du Catalogue publié en 1730’, Bulletin de la Société Archéologique et Historique du Limousin (hereafter BSAHL), 43 (1895), p. 11, ‘Rotgerius miser peccator’, is palaeographically impossible.

9 Spanke, H., ‘St. Martial-Studien: Ein Beitrag zur frühromanischen Metrik’, Zeitschrift für Französische Sprache und Literatur, 54 (1931), p. 286; Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’ i, p. 127, and ii, p. 126; and idem, The Repertory of Proses at Saint Martial de Limoges’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 11 (1958), p. 153. Lair, , Historia, p. 226, n. 1, tentatively identified this Roger as Roger de Chabannes.

10 Pa 1338, fols. 130v-132v, 132v-134v, respectively; Chailley, , L'école, p. 97 and n. 2. Both are older melodies that Adémar may have adopted for the feast of St Martial. They both appear in his hand as untexted sequences in Pa 909, fols. 121v-122r, 116r-v, and Pa 1121, fols. 65r, 62v-63r, respectively. See also Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 203, 204, 264, 267, and ii, pp. 14, 48. Editions of the texts: Alma cohors, AH, vii, no. 218, p. 238 (see also AH, liii, no. 244a, pp. 392–3); Laudum da falanx, AH, vii, no. 160, pp. 175–7.

11 Pa 1338, fols. 5v-8v; see Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, p. 130. This may have been composed by Adémar: it appears in his hand as a prosa and as an untexted sequence in Pa 909, fols. 198r-199v and 118r, respectively. Edition of text: AH, vii, no. 168, pp. 185–6.

12 Limoges, Archives Départementales de la Haute-Vienne, MS 3 H 89 (24). Text published in Chartes, chroniques et mémoriaux, pour servir à l'histoire de la Marche et du Limousin, ed. Leroux, A. and Bosvieux, A. (Tulle, 1886), no. 4, p. 10.

13 Synopse, ed. Wollasch, , i, p. 199b.

14 ibid., pp. 199b–200a. After the two necrologies from St Martial, Pa 5257 and 5243, that with the next highest incidence of the name is from Marcigny-sur-Loire (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, nouvelles acquisitions latines, MS 348), with twenty-seven occurrences of the name.

15 Limoges, Archives Departementales de la Haute-Vienne, MS 3 H 89 (19) (text published in Charles, chroniques et mémoriaux, ed. Leroux, and Bosvieux, , no. 5, p. 11).

16 Rankin, S., ‘“Ego itaque Notker scripsi”’, Revue Bénédictine, 101 (1991), pp. 268–98; and Fassler, Margot E., ‘The Office of the Cantor in Early Western Monastic Rules and Customaries: A Preliminary Investigation’, Early Music History, 5 (1985), pp. 2951.

17 Castaigne, ‘Dissertation’, pp. 81–3 and genealogical table following p. 96; and Lair, , Historia, pp. 273–6. For other genealogical details, see Levillain, L., ‘Adémar de Chabannes, généalogiste’, Bulletins de la Société des Antiquaires de l'Ouest, ser. 3, 10 (19341935), pp. 254–63.

18 Adémar, , Chronicon, 3.45, ed. Chavanon, , pp. 167–8; Lair, , Historia, pp. 187–8. He characterises two of his maternal uncles, Abbo and Raymond, as ‘strenuissimos duces, corpore robustos, animo bellicosos’ (‘most vigorous leaders, their bodies as strong as oak trees, and warlike in spirit’).

19 [Adémar], Commemoratio abbatum, ed. Duplès-Agier, , pp. 34. On Aimo, see de Lasteyrie, C., L'abbaye de Saint-Martial de Limoges: Ètude historique, économique et archéologique précédée de recherches nouvelles sur la vie du saint (Paris, 1901), pp. 62–3. On Turpin, see Becquet, J., ‘Les évêques de Limoges aux Xe, XIe et XIIe siècles’, BSAHL, 104 (1977), pp. 7582. These are the only ancestors named by Adémar; for other genealogical speculations on his family, see Nadaud, J., Nobiliaire du diocèse et de la généralité de Limoges, i, 2nd edn (Limoges, 1882; repr. Paris, 1974), pp. 44–7; and Aubrun, M., L'ancien diocèse de Limoges des origines au milieu du XIe siècle, Publications de l'lnstitut d'Études du Massif Central 21 (Clermont-Ferrand, 1981), p. 134 and n. 1.

20 [Adémar], Commemoratio abbatum, ed. Duplès-Agier, , pp. 46; and the necrologies in Pa 5257 (fol. 52v), Pa 5243 (fol. 106v) and Pa 5245 (fol. 145r); on the first two, see Synopse, ed. Wollasch, , ii p. 222. Codex Pa 1969 bears the colophon ‘ADALBERTVS DECANVS ME FIERI IVSSIT’ (fol. 162v); see Delisle, L., Le cabinet des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Impériale, 4 vols., Histoire Générale de Paris (Paris, 18681981; repr. Amsterdam, 1969, and New York, 1974), i, p. 388; Samaran, C. and Marichal, R., Catalogue des manuscrits en écriture latine portant des indications de date, de lieu ou de copiste, ii, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds latin (nos 1 à 8.000) (Paris, 1962), p. 99; du Bouveret, Les Bénédictins, Colophons de manuscrits occidentaux des origines au XVIe siècle, 6 vols., Spicilegii Friburgensis Subsidia 2–7 (Fribourg, 19651982), i, no. 102, p. 13; and Landes, ‘The Making of a Medieval Historian’, pp. 135–7.

21 de Chabannes, Adémar. Epistola de apostolatu sancti Martialis, ed. Migne, J.-P., Patrologiae cursus completus: Series latina (hereafter PL),221 vols. (Paris, 18441864), cxli, col. 89. A new edition of this letter is forthcoming in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis. On these calculations, see Landes, ‘The Making of a Medieval Historian’, pp. 108–15.

22 Adémar, Epistola de apostolatu, PL, cxli, col. 94.

23 ibid., col. 89

24 Fassler, ‘The Office of the Cantor’. She notes, pp. 43–51. that by the mid-eleventh century the offices of cantor and armarius (librarian) seem to have been combined at Cluny. They were still separate at St Martial in the early part of the century, however: Adémar identifies Roger and Aldebert as cantor and armarius, respectively: Chronicon, 3.61, ed. Chavanon, , p. 187; Lair, , Historia, pp. 226–7.

25 Adémar, , Chronicon, 3.46, 61, ed. Chavanon, , pp. 168, 186; Lair, , Historia, pp. 190, 226; Commemoratio abbatum, ed. Duplès-Agier, , p. 8.

26 On Adémar's musical activities, see Delisle, L., ‘Notice sur les manuscrits originaux d'Adémar de Chabannes’, Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale et autres bibliothèques, xxxv (Paris, 1896), pp. 350–3; Hooreman, P., ‘Saint-Martial de Limoges au temps de l'Abbé Odolric (1025–1040): Essai sur une pièce oubliée du répertoire limousin’, Revue Beige de Musicologie, 3 (1949), pp. 536; Emerson, J. A., ‘Two Newly Identified Offices for Saints Valeria and Austriclinianus by Adémar de Chabannes (MS Paris, Bibl. Nat., Latin 909, fols. 79–85v)’, Speculum, 40 (1965), pp. 3146; Huglo, M., ‘Codicologie et musicologie’, Miscellanea codicologica F. Masai dicata MCMLXXIX, 2 vols., ed. Cockshaw, P., Garand, M.-C. and Jodogne, P., Publications de Scriptorium 8 (Ghent, 1979), i, pp. 7681; Grier, ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 28–74; and idem, ‘Editing Adémar de Chabannes’ Liturgy for the Feast of Saint Martial’, Music Discourse from Classical to Early Modern Times: Editing and Translating Texts, ed. M. R.Maniates, Conference on Editorial Problems 26 (New York, 1993), pp. 17–43.

27 Identified by Delisle, ‘Notice’, pp. 350–2; see also Lair, , Historia, p. 281.

28 Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 190–5, 246–58; Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, pp. 169–71, 174–7; idem, L'école, pp. 81–3, 88–92; Husmann, , Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschrijten, pp. 118–19, 130–1; and Evans, P., The Early Trope Repertory of Saint Martial de Limoges, Princeton Studies in Music 2 (Princeton, 1970), pp. 48–9. On the libellus structure of this type of manuscript in general, see Huglo, M., ‘Les libelli de tropes et les premiers tropaires-prosaires’, Pax et sapientia: Studies in Text and Music of Liturgical Tropes and Sequences in Memory of Gordon Anderson, ed. Jacobsson, R., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 29 (Stockholm, 1986), pp. 1322; and idem, Les livres de chant liturgique, Typologie des Sources du Moyen Age Occidental 52 (Turnhout, 1988), pp. 64–75.

29 Identified by Delisle, ‘Notice’, pp. 352–3.

30 The signatures have been printed in full many times, first by Delisle, , Le cabinet des manuscrits, i, pp. 388–9; and more recently in Huglo, ‘Codicologie et musicologie’, p. 79 (where two errors have entered the text of the colophon on fol. 72v: in the first line, Huglo prints ‘dogmata’ for ‘dogmate’, and in the last line, ‘actus’ for ‘actis’).

31 First noted unequivocally by Hooreman, ‘Saint-Martial de Limoges’, pp. 16–30. See also Emerson, ‘Two Newly Identified Offices’, pp. 33–5; Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 3540; and idem, ‘Editing Adémar de Chabannes' Liturgy’, pp. 18–23.

32 Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 176–209; Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’. pp. 167–71; idem, L'école, pp.80–3; and Husmann, , Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, pp. 128–31. Pa 1121 descends from Pa 1120: Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, pp. 47-8; and Planchart, A.E., ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Patronage, Sources and Texts, ed. Fenlon, I. (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 353–60.

33 Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 5469.

34 Troped Mass for the feast of St Martin: Pa 909, fols. 54v–57r; Pa 1120, fols. 62r–64r; Pa 1121, fols. 41r-v. Chailley, , ‘Les anciens tropaires’, p. 174; and L'école, pp. 8892: see also Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 68–9. Cf. Husmann, , Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften. pp. 118-19, who, in view of the added apostolic liturgy for Martial, ascribes theoriginal layer also to the use of St Martial.

35 Gunilla Iversen, Richard Landes and I collaborated on the identification.

36 Adémar gives a detailed report of Count William's death in Chronicon, 3.66–8, ed. Chavanon, , pp. 190–4; Lair, , Historia, pp. 235–44. Our best sources for the dedication are Adémar's sermons, which survive in autograph in Pa 2469, fols. 89r–97r, numbered 38–46 in Delisle's inventory: ‘Notice’, pp. 282–3. Editions: excerpts from nos. 38, 39, 44, and all of 46, Sackur, E., Die Cluniacenser in ihrer kirchlichen und allgemeingeschichtlichen Wirksamkeit bis zur Mitle des elften Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. (Halle, 18921894), ii, pp. 479–87; no. 44, Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, pièce justificative 5, pp. 422–6; and no. 45, Sermo iii, PL, cxli, cols. 120–4. A complete edition of the sermons is forthcoming in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis.

37 Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, p. 175; idem, L'école, p. 89; Gaborit-Chopin, , La décoration, p. 183; Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, pp. 32–3; Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, p. 35; and idem, ‘Editing Adémar de Chabanness' Liturgy’, pp. 19–22.

38 Adémar, Epistola de apostolatu, PL, cxli, cols. 89–112; for commentary, see Saltet, , ‘Une discussion’. The proceedings of the Council at Limoges in 1031, ed. Labbe, P. and Cossart, G., Sacrosancta concilia, 16 vols. (Paris, 1671–2), ix, cols. 869–910; and ed. Mansi, G., Sacrorum conciliorum noua et amplissima collectio, 31 vols. (Florence and Venice, 17591798), xix, cols. 507–48. These proceedings include a large interpolation that is an invention of Adémar's; see Saltet, ‘Les faux’, pp. 145–6 and n. 6; and ‘Un cas de mythomanie’, pp. 152–7. The Council's proceedings will be newly edited in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis. For an example of some of the evidence that Ademar invented, see Landes, R., ‘A Libellus from St. Martial of Limoges Written in the Time of Ademar of Chabannes (989–1034): “Un faux à retardement”’, Scriptorium, 37 (1983), pp. 178204.

39 Facsimiles of manuscript pages in his hand are printed in Delisle, ‘Notice’, pl. VI, between pp. 240 and 241 (Pa 1978, fol. 102v; music and text in Adémar's hand); Introitus-tropen, i, Das Repertoire der siidfranzosischen Tropare des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts, ed. Weiss, G., Monumenta Monodica Medii Aeui 3 (Kassel, Basle, Tours and London, 1970), pl. VI, p. XXXIV (Pa 909, fol. 36v; music only in Adémar's hand); Corpus troporum (hereafter CT), iv, Tropes de l'Agnus Dei, ed. Iversen, G., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 26 (Stockholm, 1980), pi. XV, p. 319 (Pa 909, fol. 108v; music only in Adémar'ss hand); and Grier, ‘Editing Adémar de Chabannes' Liturgy’, pls. I and II, between pp. 24 and 25 (Pa 909, fols. 42r, 70v; music and text in Adémar's hand).

40 On litterae significatiuae in general, see Wagner, P., Einführung in die gregorianischen Melodien: Ein Handbuch der Choralwissenschaft, ii, Neumenkunde: Paläographie des liturgischen Gesanges, 2nd edn (Leipzig, 1912), pp. 233–51; van Doren, R., Étude sur l'influence de l'abbaye de Saint Gall (VIIIe au XIe siècle), Académie Royale de Belgique, Classe des Beaux-Arts, Mémoires, no. 2, fasc. 3 (Brussels, 1925; also published as Université de Louvain, Recueil de Travaux Publiés par les Membres des Conférences d'Histoire et de Philologie, ser. 2, 6 (Louvain, 1925)), pp. 94118; Hesbert, R.-J., ‘L'interprétation de l' “equaliter” dans les manuscrits sangalliens’, Revue Grégorienne, 18 (1933), pp. 161–73; Smits van Waesberghe, J., Muziekgeschiedenis der Middeleeuwen, II, Verklaring der Letterteekens (litterae significatiuae) in het gregoriaansche Neumenschrift van Sint Gallen: Een Onderzoek naar de historische Waarde van den zoogenaamden Notker-Brief en naar den Oorsprong en de Beteekenis der Letterteekens in St. Gallen, Nederlandsche Muziekhistorische en Muziekpaedagogische Studiën A (Tilburg, 19391942); and Froger, J., ‘L'épître de Notker sur les “lettres significatives”: Édition critique’, Études Grégoriennes, 5 (1962), pp. 2371. On litterae significatiuae in Aquitanian notation, see Crocker, R. L., The Early Medieval Sequence (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1977), pp. 21–2 and pl. III, p. 455. On Adémar's use of the custos, see Huglo, M., ‘La tradition musicale aquitaine: Répertoire et notation’, Liturgie et musique (IXe-XIVe s.), Cahiers de Fanjeaux 17 (Toulouse, 1982), pp. 260–1.

41 Visible in Delisle, ‘Notice’, pl. VI, between pp. 240 and 241 (Pa 1978, fol. 102v). See Huglo, M., Les tonaires: Inventaire, analyse, comparaison, Publications de la Société Française de Musicologie, ser. 3, 2 (Paris, 1971), pp. 110–11.

42 Hooreman, ‘Saint-Martial de Limoges’, pp. 16–30.

43 Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 4750.

44 Emerson, ‘Two Newly Identified Offices’, pp. 40–6.

45 For an analysis of an introit trope composed by Adémar, see Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 50-4.

46 Evans, P., ‘Northern French Elements in an Early Aquitanian Troper’, Speculum musicae artis: Festgabe fir Heinrkh Husmann zum 60. Geburtstag am 16. Dezember 1968, ed. Becker, H. and Gerlach, R. (Munich, 1970), pp. 103–10; see also Planchart, A.E., The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester, 2 vols. (Princeton, 1977), i, pp. 178, 201–6.

47 Emerson, J. A., ‘Neglected Aspects of the Oldest Full Troper (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 1240)’, Recherches nouvelles sur les tropes liturgiques, ed. Arlt, W. and Björkvall, G., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 36 (Stockholm, 1993), pp. 206–17.

48 Originally the date 933–6 was tentatively posited in Le codex 903 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris (Xle siècle), Graduel de Saint-Yrieix, Paléographie Musicale (hereafter PalMus) 13 (Tournay), 1925–30 p. 123, where the possibility that Pope John X (914–28) could be meant by the acclamations is ignored and a false date for the accession of John XI. who reigned 931–6, is given; see Chailley, , L'école, pp. 78–9, who accepts this date. Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 49–50, gives 923–34, on the basis of a false date for the death of Abbot Stephen of St Martial, who died in 937 (Lemaître, , Mourir à Saint-Martial, p. 149). Samaran, and Marichal, , Catalogue des manuscrits … portant des indications de date, ii, p. 61, date the manuscript 931–4, using a false date for the death of Turpin, bishop of Limoges, who died in 944. Planchart, , The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester, ii, p. 348, gives 923–36, correct except that the book could not have been written during the reigns of Popes Leo VI and Stephen VIII (928–31). The correct dates, then, are 923–8 (delimited by the accession of King Raoul of France in 923 and the death of John X in 928) or 931–6 (delimited by the reign of John XI). See also Emerson, ‘Neglected Aspects’, pp. 193–217, esp. pp. 199 and 204–8.

49 Delisle, , Le cabinet des manuscrits, iii, pp. 271–2; Gautier, L., Histoire de la poésie liturgique au moyen âge: Les tropes (Paris, 1886), p. 122; and Husmann, , Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, pp. 37–8. At a conference in 10 1985, Jean, Vezin, and Frangois, Avril expressed their agreement with this position; reported in CT, vii, Tropes de l'Ordinaire de la Messe: Tropes du Sanctus, ed. Iversen, G., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 34 (Stockholm, 1990), p. 55 and n. 47 (p. 59). See also Landes, R., ‘L'accession des Capétiens: Une reconsidération selon les sources aquitaines’, Religion et culture autour de Van mil: Royaume capétien et Lotharingie, ed. Iogna-Prat, D. and Picard, J.-C. (Paris, 1990), p. 159.

50 Emerson, J. A., ‘Fragments of a Troper from Saint Martial de Limoges’, Scriptorium, 16 (1962), pp. 369–72.

51 Planchart, ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, pp. 357–60; Emerson, ‘Fragments of a Troper’, p. 371, also notes the connection with Pa 1120.

52 Editions of the text: AH, xlix, no. 4, p. 10; and CT, iii, Tropes du propre de la messe, pt 2, Cycle de Pâques, ed. Björkvall, G., Iversen, G. and Jonsson, R., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 25 (Stockholm, 1982), p. 173. Editions of the music: Introitus-tropen, i, ed. Weiss, , no. 303, pp. 317–19; and Evans, , The Early Repertory, no. 100, p. 188. On it location in Pa 1834 and 1120, see Emerson, ‘Fragment of a Troper’, p. 371; Planchart, ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, pp. 359–60; and CT, iii, ed. Björkvall, et al. , pp. 269–71.

53 Edition of the text: CT, iii, ed. Björkvall, et al., pp. 65, 188, 203 (individual elements). / Edition of the music: Introitus-tropen, i, ed. Weiss, , no. 298, pp. 311–12.

54 Emerson, ‘Fragments of a Troper’, p. 371, and Planchart, ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, p. 359 and n. 31, mistakenly state that Celsa potestas occurs in Pa 1120 after the offertory and communion tropes, and Planchart omits Hodie rex glorie from his table for Pa 1120; cf. CT, iii, ed. Björkvall, et al. , pp. 270–1.

55 Emerson, ‘Fragments of a Troper’, pp. 370–1.

56 I thank Professor Virginia Brown for examining the codex with me and confirming some of the codicological details.

57 Emerson, J. A., ‘Sources, MS, § II, Western Plainchant’, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Sadie, Stanley, 20 vols. (London, 1980), xvii, p. 612.

58 Four of the medieval catalogues have been printed twice: Delisle, , Le cabinet des manuscrits, ii, pp. 493504; and Chroniques, ed. Duplès-Agier, , pp. 323–55. For further bibliography and a discussion of the binding programme, see Grier, J., ‘Some Codicological Observations on the Aquitanian Versaria’, Musica Disciplina, 44 (1990), pp. 816.

59 On the sale, see Delisle, ‘Les manuscrits’, pp. 13–33; and Balayé, S., La Bibliothèque Nationale des origines à 1800, Histoire des Idées et Critique Littéraire 262 (Geneva, 1988), p. 206. For further bibliography, see Grier, n. 4. Codex Pa 9373 contains much of the correspondence concerning the purchase; on the condition of the manuscripts upon their arrival, see esp. the unsigned letter dated 15 September 1730, Pa 9373, pp. 113–14; also the memorandum dated 5 09 1730, ibid., pp. 109–10; and the memorandum of the Abbé Jourdain of 25 April 1732, pp. 207–8 (the latter is printed in Delisle, ‘Les manuscrits’, pp. 26–31). See also Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 25–31.

60 Vezin, J., Évolution des techniques de la reliure médiévale, Notes sur les Techniques du Livre Ancien, Introduction à la Conservation 2 (Paris, 1973), pp. 410, esp. figs. 2 and 4; idem, ‘La reliure occidentale au moyen âge’, La reliure médiévale: Trois conférences d'initiation, 2nd edn (Paris, 1981), pp. 38–41 and fig. 18, p. 44, figs. 24–5; and Gilissen, L., La reliure occidentale antérieure à 1400, Bibliologia: Elementa ad Librorum Studia Pertinentia 1 (Turnhout, 1983), pp. 1318. I am grateful to Illo Humphrey for these references.

61 Texts edited in Roederer, C. D., ‘Eleventh-Century Aquitanian Chant: Studies Relating to a Local Repertory of Processional Antiphons’, 2 vols. (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1971), ii, pp. 165, 109, 134, respectively.

62 ibid., p. 12.

63 Emerson, ‘Neglected Aspects’, p. 214.

64 Grier, ‘Some Codicological Observations’, pp. 16–17.

65 Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, p. 72, and ‘Some Codicological Observations’, p. 17.

66 Roederer, ‘Eleventh-Century Aquitanian Chant’, ii, pp. 12–13.

67 Gaborit-Chopin, , La décoration, pp. 65, 190.

68 Pa 1085: Emerson, ‘Neglected Aspects’, p. 207. Pa 1120: Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, pp. 167–9, and L'école, pp. 80–1.

69 The only monastic chant books for the Office of comparable age cited by Hiley, D., Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford, 1993), pp. 304–5, are the Hartker Antiphoner (St Gall, Stiftsbibliothek (hereafter SG), MSS 390–1; facsimile edn in Antiphonale Officii monastici écrit par le B. Hartker: No 390–391 de la Bibliothèque de Saint-Gall, PalMus, ser. 2, 1 (Solesmes, 1900)) and the Mont-Renaud manuscript (private collection (hereafter MR); facsimile edn in Le manuscrit du Mont-Renaud: Xe slècle graduel et antiphonaire de Noyon, PalMus 16 (Solesmes, 1955)); on these manuscripts, see Franca, U., Le antifone bibliche dopo Pentecoste, Studia Anselmiana 73, Analecta Liturgica 4 (Rome, 1977), pp. 3855; and Beyssac, G. M., ‘Le graduel-antiphonaire de Mont- Renaud’, Revue de Musicologie, 39 (1957), pp. 131–50. See also the list of Office manuscripts in Hesbert, R.-J., Corpus antiphonalium Officii (hereafter CAO), 6 vols., Rerum Ecclesiasticarum Documenta, Series Maior, Fontes 7–12 (Rome, 19631979), v, pp. 518. Codex Pa 17436, the ninth-century manuscript from the abbey of St Corneille in Compiègne, follows the secular or Roman cursus; see Hesbert, , CAO, i, pp. XVIIXIX; and Franca, , Le antifone bibliche, pp. 2937.

70 Gaborit-Chopin, , La décoration, pp. 68, 184–5.

71 Hesbert, CAO, iii and iv, contain the full texts of the Office chants.

72 Saxer, V., Le culte de Marie Madeleine en Occident des origines à la fin du moyen âge, 2 vols., Cahiers d'Archéologie et d'Histoire 3 (Auxerre and Paris, 1959), i, pp. 153-82, esp. pp. 159-60, 169-70.

73 Grier, ‘Some Codicological Observations’, pp. 52–6.

74 Huglo, , Les tonaires, p. 111.

75 Benedict of Nursia, Regula, 9.6, 11.2, ed. de Vogüé, A. and Neufville, J., La règle de Saint Benoît, 7 vols., Sources Chrétiennes 181–6 (Paris, 19711977), ii, pp. 510, 514.

76 Ordo romanus XVI, 15, ed. Andrieu, M., Les Ordines romani du haul moyen âge, 5 vols., Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense, Études et Documents 11. 23, 24, 28, 29 (Louvain, 19311961), iii, pp. 148–9, and n. 15 (Hiley, , Western Plainchant, p. 74, incorrectly identifies this text as Ordo romanus VI); Amalarius of Metz, Liber de ordine antiphonarii. 18.6–7, ed. Hanssens, J.-M., Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia, 3 vols., Studi e Testi 138–40 (Vatican City, 19481950), iii, p. 55; and Strabo, Walafrid, Libellus de exordiis et incrementis quarundam in obseruationibus ecclesasticis rerum, 26. ed. Boretius, A. and Krause, V., Monumenta Germaniae historica (hereafter MGH), Legum, ser. 2, Capitularia regum Francorum, ii (Hanover, 1897), p. 507. The unanimity of these sources allows us to dismiss Pierre Salmon's assertion that Amalarius was referring only to the last responsory of each nocturn, in accord with St Benedict: Salmon, , L'office divin au moyen âge: Histoire de la formation du bréviaire du IXe au XVle siècle, Lex Orandi 43 (Paris, 1967), p. 34. See also the twelfth-century ordo written for Cardinal Guido of Castille before he became Pope Celestine II (and therefore before September 1143), published as Ordo romanus xi, 3, pl, lxxviii, cols. 1026–7 (not edited by Andrieu, ; see Les Ordines romani, i, pp. 309–11). For commentary, see Wagner, , Einfu'hrung, i, Ursprung und Entwicklung der liturgischen Gesangsformen bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters, 3rd edn (Leipzig, 1911), pp. 133–7; Hucke, H. ‘Das Responsorium’, Gattungen der Musik in Einzeldarstellungen: Gedenkschrift Leo Schrade, ed. Arlt, W., Lichtenhahn, E. and Oesch, H. (Berne and Munich, 1973), pp. 160–2; and Crocker, R. L., ‘Liturgical Materials of Roman Chant’, New Oxford History of Music, ii, The Early Middle Ages to 1300, 2nd edn, ed. Crocker, and Hiley, (Oxford and New York, 1990), pp. 126–8.

77 Amalarius, , Liber de ordine antiphonarii, 18.6, ed. Hanssens, , iii, p. 55; and Ordo romanus xi, 3, pl, lxxviii, col. 1027. See also Wagner, , Einführung, i, p. 136; Apel, W., Gregorian Chant (Bloomington and London, 1958), p. 182; Hughes, A., Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and Office: A Guide to their Organization and Terminology (Toronto, 1982), pp. 29, 301; and Hiley, , Western Plainchant, p. 70.

78 Amalarius, , Liber de ordine antiphonarii, 18.6, ed. Hanssens, , iii, p. 55; and Ordo romanus XI, 3, PL, lxxviii, cols. 1026–7.

79 Amalarius, , Prologus de ordine antiphonarii, 12, and Liber de ordine antiphonarii, 18.6–8, ed. Hanssens, i, p. 362, and iii, p. 55, respectively. But Ordo romanus xi, 3, PL, lxxviii, cols. 1026–7, shows that the repetendum after each verse is shortened, as in the Frankish practice, but that the final repetendum, after the lesser doxology, is complete.

80 Pa 17296 (Hesbert's MS D) places Cantabant in Lauds; see Hesbert, CAO, ii, no. 22, where the contents of all six manuscripts are listed synoptically for this feast.

81 Vidi turbam magnam in Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS V-21 (Hesbert's MS L); Hi sunt qui in Zurich, Zentralbibliothek, MS Rh. 28 (R); and Hi empti sunt in London, British Library, Additional MS 30850 (S).

82 Hesbert, CAO, iv, no. 7879 in Pa 12584 (Hesbert's MS F); and CAO, iv, no. 7880 in L.

83 I am very grateful to Professor Ruth Steiner, Director of CANTUS, for supplying me with the inventory of this codex.

84 CANTUS, , An Aquitanian Antiphoner: Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 44.2, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 55, 1 (Ottawa, 1992), p. 9.

85 Antiphonale sarisburiense, ed. Frere, W. H. (London, 19011924; repr. Farnborough, 1966), pp. 35; Wagner, , Einfükrung, iii, Gregorianische Formenlehre: Eine choralische Stilkunde (Leipzig, 1921), pp. 188216; Ferretti, P. M., Estetica gregoriana: Traltato delle forme musicali del canto gregoriano, i (Rome, 1935), pp. 265–83; Apel, , Gregorian Chant, pp. 234–41; and Hiley, , Western Plainchant, pp. 65–6.

86 Reproduced in facsimile in Cantatorium (IXe siècle): No 359 de la Bibliothèque de Saint-Gall, PalMus, ser. 2, 2 (Tournai, 1924; repr. Berne, 1968).

87 See, for example, the tenth-century customary from Einsiedeln, , Consuetudines einsidlenses, ed. Albers, B., Consuetudines monasticae 5 (Monte Cassino, 1912), pp. 7780; and the eleventh-century customary of Cluny, Liber tramitis aeui Odilonis abbatis, 2.26, ed. Dinter, P., Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum 10 (Siegburg, 1980), p. 238. See also Fassler, ‘The Office of the Cantor’, pp. 39–51. Emerson, ‘Neglected Aspects’, p. 207, reaches the same conclusion about Pa 1085.

88 Emerson, ‘Neglected Aspects’, pp. 206–8.

89 [Adémar, ], Commemoratio abbatum, ed. Duplès-Agier, , pp. 45; Itier, Bernard, Chronicon, ed. Duplès-Agier, , Chroniques, pp. 42-3.

90 Hesbert, , CAO, v, pp. 518, lists the manuscripts consulted. Hesbert did not consider Pa 1085.

91 In Table 7, numbers in parentheses give the numerical codes Hesbert assigned to the Advent responsories; see Hesbert, , CAO, v, pp. 32–3. An asterisk denotes a verse unique to Pa 1085. For the biblical sources, cf. the identifications in Alfonzo, P., I responsori biblici dell'Ufficio Romano, Lateranum, new ser., year 2, no. 1 (Rome, 1936), pp. 136–58.

92 Complete lists of responsories for each of the three Sundays are given in Hesbert, . CAO, v, pp. 62–8, 8692, 108–14, respectively. Monastic manuscripts bear sigla starting from 601. Hesbert analyses the groups of monastic manuscripts for these three feasts in CAO, v, pp. 84–5, 106–7, 129–30, respectively.

93 List of responsories, ibid., v, pp. 35–41; groupings of monastic manuscripts, ibid., v pp. 60–1.

94 ibid., v, pp. 27–31. For the manuscripts that agree on each of the Sundays in Advent, see ibid., v, pp. 57–9, 82–5, 104–7, 128–9, respectively.

95 ibid., v, pp. 28–31, 233–58.

96 ibid., i, no. 22, presents synoptically the contents of all six secular manuscripts for this feast.

97 ibid., vi, pp. 2–3; Hesbert gives the complete listing of verses for the Advent responsories in all 800 sources, ibid., vi, pp. 56–78.

98 Wagner, , Einführung, i, pp. 137–8. See also Hucke, ‘Das Responsorium’, pp. 159–60; and Hiley, , Western Plainchant, p. 70.

99 Hesbert, , CAO, ii, pp. VI–IX.

100 Amalarius, , Liber de ordine antiphonarii, Prologue 1–2, ed. Hanssens, , iii, p. 13.

101 Episcopal liturgy, Pa 1085, fols. 76v–77r; apostolic, Pa 909, fols. 62v–74v.

102 Pa 1978, fols. 103r-v.

103 Cybard, Pa 1978, fols. 102r-v (see Delisle, ‘Notice’, pp. 351–2); Valery and Austriclinian, Pa 909, fols. 78r–81v and 81v–85v, respectively (see Emerson, ‘Two Newly Identified Offices’, pp. 43–6).

104 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 755, gives the complete list of verses.

105 Hesbert's source 534; see ibid., v, p. 17.

106 The scriptural origins of the texts are indicated in Table 7 above. A dash denotes a non-scriptural text.

107 For an example from the sanctorale, see Steiner, R., ‘The Music for a Cluny Office of Saint Benedict’, Monasticism and the Arts, ed. Verdon, T. G. and Dally, J. (Syracuse, 1984), pp. 81113. On Matins for Christmas, see Crocker, ‘Liturgical Materials of Roman Chant’, pp. 125–6.

108 On responsorial texts, see Alfonzo, , I responsori biblici, esp. pp. 3047.

109 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 20–1.

110 ibid., vi, pp. 33–4.

111 It occurs in all but eighteen of Hesbert's sources: ibid., vi, p. 25. Table 9 gives the text of CAO because Pa 1085 provides the incipit only.

112 Alfonzo, , I responsori biblici, pp. 37–8.

113 Levy, K., ‘Toledo, Rome and the Legacy of Gaul’, Early Music History, 4 (1984), pp. 4999. See also Wagner, , Einführung, i, pp. 322–43; Pietschmann, P., ‘Die nicht dem Psalter entnommenen Messgesangstücke auf ihre Textgestalt untersucht’, Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft, 12 (1932), pp. 87144, esp. pp. 114–30; and Hucke, , ‘Die Texte der Offertorien’, Speculum musicae artis, ed. Becker, and Gerlach, , pp. 193203.

114 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 20–1, 33–4. The sigla for SG 390–1 and MR are 500 and 728, respectively; see CAO, v, pp. 11, 16. Alfonzo, , I responsori biblici, pp. 37–9.

115 On the presence of Gallican items in Aquitanian manuscripts, esp. Pa 776, see Gastoué, A., ‘Le chant gallican’, Revue du Chant Grégorien, 41 (1937), pp. 132–3 (this article consists of a series of contributions to Revue du Chant Grégorien, 41–3 (1937–1939); repr. separately Grenoble, 1939); Huglo, M., ‘Les preces des graduels aquitains empruntées à la liturgie hispanique’, Hispania Sacra, 8 (1955), pp. 361–83; and Cullin, O., ‘Une pièce gallicane conservée par la liturgie de Gaillac: L'offertoire Salvator Mundi pour les défunts’, Liturgie et musique, pp. 287–96.

116 Wagner, , Einführung, i, p. 133; Apel, , Gregorian Chant, pp. 180–5; Hughes, , Medieval Manuscripts, pp. 2630 and fig. 2.2, p. 33. On the eastern origin of solo psalmody, see Dyer, J., ‘Monastic Psalmody of the Middle Ages’, Revue Bénédictine, 99 (1989), pp. 4174; and on its introduction to the West, Jeffery, P., ‘The Introduction of Psalmody into the Roman Mass by Pope Celestine I (422–432): Reinterpreting a Passage in the Liber Pontificalis’, Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft, 26 (1984), pp. 147–65.

117 Most of the pertinent texts are collected and translated in Music in Early Christian Literature, ed. McKinnon, J., Cambridge Readings in the Literature of Music (Cambridge, 1987); see esp. passages from Tertullian (McKinnon, no. 78, p. 44), Athanasius (no. 102, p. 54), Basil the Great (no. 139, pp. 68–9), John Chrysostom (nos. 178, 184, pp. 84, 86, respectively), Eusebius of Caesarea (no. 208, p. 98). Sozomen (no. 221, p. 103), Egeria (no. 253, p. 117), Ambrose (nos. 276, 289, pp. 126–7, 130, respectively), Augustine (nos. 364, 374, pp. 159, 162, respectively) and Gennadius (no. 398, p. 170). See also Leeb, H., Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius, Wiener Beiträge zur Theologie 18 (Vienna, 1967), pp. 1718, 31, 5380; and Hucke, Das Responsorium, pp. 150–5.

118 Augustine of Hippo, Enarrationes in Psalmos, ad 46.1, 119.1, ed. Dekkers, E. and Fraipont, J., 3 vols., Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 38–40 (Turnhout, 1956), i, p. 529, iii, p. 1776.

119 Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, 8.3, ed. Krusch, B. and Levison, W., MGH, Scriptores rerum merouingicarum, i, pt 1, 2nd edn (Hanover, 19371951), pp. 372–3.

120 Gastoué, , ‘Le chant gallican’, Revue du Chant Grégorien, 41 (1937), pp. 104–5; and Huglo, M., ‘Le répons-graduel de la messe: Èvolution de la forme, permanence de la fonction’, Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft, new ser., 2 (1982), pp. 5373.

121 Isidore of Sevìlle, De ecclesiasticis officiis, 1.8, ed. Lawson, C. M., Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 113 (Turnhout, 1989), p. 8; see also Elymologiae, 6.19.8, ed. Lindsay, W. M., 2 vols., Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis (Oxford, 1911). without pagination.

122 Batiffol, P., ‘L'origine du Liber responsalis de l'église romaine’, Revue des Questions Historiques, 55 (1894). pp. 220–8. On the early state of the texts, see ibid., pp. 223–4, citing correspondence from a M. Berger (Samuel Berger, according to Alfonzo); M[orin], G., ‘Les témoins de la tradition grégorienne’, Revue Bénédictine, 7 (1890), p. 321 (also published as part of idem, Les véritables origines du chant grégorien (Abbaye de Maredsous, 1890; 3rd edn, 1912)); and Alfonzo, , I responsori biblici, pp. 46–7.

123 Batiffol, P., Histoire du bréviaire romain, 3rd edn, Bibliothèque d'Histoire Religieuse (Paris, 1911), pp. 121–2. See also Hucke, ‘Das Responsorium’, pp. 157–9.

124 Crocker, ‘Liturgical Materials of Roman Chant’, pp. 136–7.

125 Pa 1085 (see Table 7 above): Audite uerbum (first Sunday of Advent, second nocturn) and Ecce Dominus ueniet (second Sunday of Advent, first nocturn). Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 755.

126 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 1282, considers this issue with the aim of attempting to establish an ‘archetypal’ list of verses for the Advent responsories. See also Alfonzo, , I responsori biblici, pp. 42–5.

127 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, pp. 1516. In Pa 1085 it falls in the second nocturn of the first Sunday of Advent; see Table 7 above.

128 The respond is taken from Hesbert, CAO, iv, no. 7562, because Pa 1085 gives only the incipit. The verses are taken from Pa 1085, fol. 4r, as are the cues for the repetenda.

129 Amalarius, , Prologus de ordine antiphonarii, 1213, and Liber de ordine antiphonarii, 18.6–8, ed. Hanssens, , i, pp. 362–3, and III, p. 55, respectively. See also Crocker, ‘Liturgical Materials of Roman Chant’, pp. 126–7.

130 Hesbert, , CAO, vi, p. 47.

131 See the diploma copied into Pa 52, fol. 221v; printed in Guibert, L., Documents, analyses de pièces, extraits & notes relatifs à l'histoire municipale des deux villes de Limoges, i, Société des Archives Historiques du Limousin, ser. 1, Archives Anciennes 7 (Limoges, 1897), no. 123, pp. 111-12; and Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, pièce justificative 2, pp. 420–1. See also Adémar, , Chronicon, 3.16, ed. Chavanon, , p. 131; Lair, , Historia, p. 105; and Sermon 22 of Adémar de Chabannes, Pa 2469, fol. 68v (Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, p. 45, n. 2 also cites a sermon on fol. 78v, but neither Sermon 25 nor 26, both of which appear on this page, refers to the abbey's imperial patron). On the falsehood of this claim, see Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, pp. 4150.

132 The chief narrative source is a note in Pa 11019, pp. 165–9; printed in Champeval, J.-B., ed., ‘Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges, Supplément’, BSAHL, 42 (1894), no. XV, pp. 322–4; and Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, pièce justificative 7, pp. 427–9. Another copy occurs in Limoges, Archives Départementales de la Haute-Vienne, MS 3 H 6 (3). See also Damian, Peter, De gallica Petri Damiani profectione et eius ultramontano itinere, 14–15, ed. Schwartz, G. and Hofmeister, A., MGH, Scriptorum, xxx, pt 2 (Leipzig, 1934), pp. 1043–4; and Geoffrey of Vigeois, Chronica, 14, ed. Labbe, P., Noua bibliotheca manuscriptorum librorum, ii, Rerum aquitanarum, praesertim bituricensium, uberrima collectio (Paris, 1657), pp. 287–8. For commentary, see Lasteyrie, , L'abbaye de Saint-Martial, pp. 83–6, and Sohn, A., Der Abbatiat Ademars von Saint-Martial deLimoges (1063–1114): Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des cluniacensischen Klösterverbandes, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Alten Mönchtums und des Benediktinertums 37 (Münster Westfallen, 1989), pp. 4678.

133 Hesbert's sigla for Pa 743 and 1088 are 781 and 784, respectively; see CAO, v, p. 13. For their concurrence with the Cluniac sources, see ibid., v, pp. 407–44, esp. pp. 411, 424–5, 429–33, 443.

134 Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 176–89; Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, pp. 165–6; idem, L'école, pp. 80–1; Husmann, , Tropen– und Sequenzenhandschriften, pp. 128–9; Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, pp. 47–8; and Planchart, ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, pp. 353–61.

135 Crocker, ‘The Repertoire of Proses’, i, pp. 43–55, ii, pp. 91–7; idem, ‘The Repertory of Proses’, pp. 154–7; Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, pp. 167–9; idem, L'école, pp. 78–80; and Husmann, , Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, pp. 137–9.

136 CT, iii, ed. Björkvall, et al. , pp. 114, 174 (individual elements) and 270–1 (location in the sources); see also Introitus-tropen, i, ed. Weiss, , Appendix, no. 37, pp. 447–8.

137 Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vaticanus latinus 4770. See de Solesmes, Les Moines, Le graduel remain: Édition critique, ii, Les sources (Solesmes, 1957), p. 124; and Salmon, P., Les manuscrits liturgiques latins de la Bibliothèque Vaticane, ii, Sacramentaires épistoliers évangéliaires graduels missels, Studi e Testi 253 (Vatican City, 1969), no. 401, p. 156.

138 See AH, xlix, no. 185, pp. 91–2; Introitus-tropen, i, ed. Weiss, , Appendix, no. 3, p. 444; and Planchart, , The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester, ii, no. 80, p. 102.

139 Edition of text: AH, xlix, no. 511, p. 269, where its presence in Pa 1120 is not noted.

140 Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, no. 115, p. 196; and CT, ii, Prosules de la messe, pt 1, Tropes de l'alleluia, ed. Marcusson, O., Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, Studia Latina Stockholmiensia 22 (Stockholm, 1976), no. 68.1, p. 133, where its presence in Pa 1120 is unacknowledged. See also CT, iii, ed. Björkvall, et al. , pp. 273–6, where it is not listed among the introit tropes in Pa 1120. Hodie repleuit is one of the very few pieces without music in Pa 1120 that is entered in Pa 1121, whose scribe usually omits such items; see Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, pp. 47–8, and Planchart, ‘The Transmission of Medieval Chant’, pp. 354–5. Pa 1121, but not Pa 1119, transmits music for this trope.

141 See Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 3940, for the arrangement of tropes and host chant in the offertory from the apostolic Mass for the feast of St Martial.

142 Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, no. 96, p. 186. The same arrangement also occurs in Pa 1119, fols. 39v–40r, whereas Pa 909, fols. 33v-34r, follows the disposition of Pa 1120.

143 Gastoué, , ‘Le chant gallican’, Revue du Chant Grégorien, 42 (1938), pp. 5960; and Roederer, ‘Eleventh-Century Aquitanian Chant’, i, p. 159, ii, p. 133.

144 No comprehensive survey of Aquitanian notation exists. See Lapeyre, J., ‘La notation aquitaine et les origines de la notation musical d'après les anciens manuscrits d'Albi’, Tribune Saint-Gervais, 13 (1907), pp. 193–8, 226–36, 255–62, 275–86; Le codex 903 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris, pp. 54–211; Suñol, G. M., Introduction à la paléographie musicale grégorienne, Paléographie Grégorienne 708 (Paris, Tournai and Rome, 1935), pp. 164–72, 260–81; Corbin, S., Die Neumen, Paläographie der Musik, ser. l, iii, Die einstimmige Musik des Mittelalters (Cologne, 1977), pp. 94100; Crocker, , The Early Medieval Sequence, pp. 1526; Huglo, ‘La tradition musicale aquitaine’, pp. 253–68; and Mas, J., ‘La tradition musicale en Septimanie: Répertoire et tradition musicale’, Liturgie et musique, pp. 280–5.

145 See the editions Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, no. 100, p. 188; and Introitus-tropen, i, ed. Weiss, , no. 303, pp. 317–19.

146 On Pa 1121, see Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, pp. 48, 121–5.

147 See the editions in Evans, , The Early Trope Repertory, no. 140, p. 210; and Introitus-tropen. i, ed. Weiss, , no. 75, pp. 93–4.

148 See Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 62–4.

149 ibid., pp. 61–2. See also Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, p. 167; and L'école, p. 81.

150 Huglo, ‘Codicologie et musicologie’, pp. 79–80; and Grier, , ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 61–2. See also Chailley, ‘Les anciens tropaires’, p. 169, idem, L'ecole, p. 82; and Gaborit-Chopin, La décoration, pp. 71, 75, 186–7.

151 Grier, ‘Ecce sanctum’, pp. 35–69.

* A shorter version of this article was delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society in Montreal, 7 November 1993. I thank Margot E. Fassler for her thoughtful response. This study is part of a project to edit the complete works of Adémar de Chabannes for the Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaeualis, directed by Richard Landes of Boston University. I am grateful to the Principal's Development Fund and the Advisory Research Committee, both of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada; and the A. Whitney Griswold Faculty Research Grant and the John F. Enders Research Assistance Grant, both of Yale University, for a series of grants that funded research trips to Paris and Limoges during the period 1989-94. For permission to reproduce photographs of materials in their collections. I thank Mme Véronique Notin of the Musée Municipal de l'Évêché, Limoges, M. Robert Chanaud of the Archives Départementales de la Haute-Vienne, Limoges, and M. François Avril of the Salle des Manuscrits, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. I am also very grateful to M. Avril and Mme Contamine of the Section Latine, Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, for their many kindnesses.

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