Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kammerer, Christian F. Butler, Richard J. Bandyopadhyay, Saswati Stocker, Michelle R. and Angielczyk, Kenneth 2016. Relationships of the Indian phytosaurParasuchus hislopiLydekker, 1885. Papers in Palaeontology, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Butler, Richard J. Rauhut, Oliver W. M. Stocker, Michelle R. and Bronowicz, Robert 2014. Redescription of the phytosaursPaleorhinus(‘Francosuchus’)angustifronsandEbrachosuchus neukamifrom Germany, with implications for Late Triassic biochronology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 170, Issue. 1, p. 155.


A new taxonomic arrangement for Paleorhinus scurriensis

  • Michelle R. Stocker (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2013

The paraphyletic genus ‘Paleorhinus’ is understood currently as a cosmopolitan phytosaur taxon from the Late Triassic. There is no consensus regarding the number of species of ‘Paleorhinus,’ with multiple species and genera synonymised into a single genus or even a single species at various points in its published history. The taxonomy is confounded by historical descriptions without the benefit of comparisons to more recently collected specimens, emphasis on plesiomorphic cranial morphology as diagnostic features of the genus, and lack of cladistic analyses. When included in a recent explicitly cladistic phylogenetic analysis, the holotype of ‘Paleorhinusscurriensis (TTU P-00539) was found to be the earliest-branching phytosaur with respect to other North American specimens previously referred to ‘Paleorhinus,’ and is generically distinct from Paleorhinus. ‘Paleorhinusscurriensis differs from all known phytosaurs in five unambiguous characters: basitubera widely separated mediolaterally; ridge present on lateral surface of jugal; thickened shelf present along posteroventral edge of expanded pterygoid-quadrate wing; ‘septomaxillae’ separated and excluded from internarial septum; and nasal swelling present posterior to posterior borders of nares. This detailed morphological description of an early-branching phytosaur taxon is a first step towards resolving long-standing issues surrounding specific anatomical features and relationships among early members of the clade.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S. L. Brusatte , M. J. Benton , J. B. Desojo & M. C. Langer 2010. The higher-level phylogeny of Archosauria (Tetrapoda: Diapsida). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8 (1), 347.

R. J. Butler , S. L. Brusatte , M. Reich , S. J. Nesbitt , R. R. Schoch & J. J. Hornung 2011. The sail-backed reptile Ctenosauriscus from the latest Early Triassic of Germany and the timing and biogeography of the early archosaur radiation. PLoS ONE 6 (10), e25693.

K. D. Doyle & H.-D. Sues 1995. Phytosaurs (Reptilia: Archosauria) from the Upper Triassic New Oxford Formation of York County, Pennsylvania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 (3), 545–53.

J. Dzik 2001. A new Paleorhinus fauna in the Early Late Triassic of Poland. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3), 625–27.

S. Furin , N. Preto , M. Rigo , G. Roghi , P. Gianolla , J. L. Crowley & S. A. Bowring 2006. High-precision U–Pb zircon age from the Triassic of Italy: Implications for the Triassic time scale and the Carnian origin of calcareous nannoplankton and dinosaurs. Geology 34 (12), 1009–12.

J. Gauthier , A. G. Kluge & T. Rowe 1988. Amniote phylogeny and the importance of fossils. Cladistics 4 (2), 105209.

D. J. Gower 2002. Braincase evolution in suchian archosaurs (Reptilia: Diapsida): evidence from the rauisuchian Batrachotomus kupferzellensis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136 (1), 4976.

J. T. Gregory 1962. The genera of phytosaurs. American Journal of Science 260, 652–90.

A. Hungerbühler 2000. Heterodonty in the European phytosaur Nicrosaurus kapffi and its implications for the taxonomic utility and functional morphology of phytosaur dentitions. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 (1), 3148.

A. Hungerbühler 2002. The Late Triassic phytosaur Mystriosuchus westphali, with a revision of the genus. Palaeontology 45 (2), 377418.

R. B. Irmis 2007. Axial skeleton ontogeny in the Parasuchia (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) and its implications for ontogenetic determination in archosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2), 350–61.

R. B. Irmis , R. Mundil , J. W. Martz & W. G. Parker 2011. High-resolution U–Pb ages from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation (New Mexico, USA) support a diachronous rise of dinosaurs. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 309 (3–4), 258–67.

W. L. Langston Jr. 1949. A new species of Paleorhinus from the Triassic of Texas. American Journal of Science 247, 324–41.

J. H. Lees 1907. The skull of Paleorhinus a Wyoming phytosaur. Journal of Geology 15, 121–51.

S. G. Lucas 1998. Global Triassic tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 143 (4), 347–84.

R. Mundil , J. Pálfy , P. R. Renne & P. Brack 2010. The Triassic timescale: new constraints and a review of geochronological data. InS. G. Lucas (ed.) The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 334, 4160. Bath, UK: The Geological Society Publishing House.

G. Muttoni , D. V. Kent , P. E. Olsen , P. Di Stefano , W. Lowrie , S. M. Bernasconi & F. M. Hernández 2004. Tethyan magnetostratigraphy from Pizzo Mondello (Sicily) and correlation to the Late Triassic Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116 (9–10), 1043–58.

S. J. Nesbitt 2011. The early evolution of archosaurs: relationships and the origins of major clades. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 352, 1292.

S. J. Nesbitt , J. Liu & C. Li 2011. A sail-backed suchian from the Heshanggou Formation (Early Triassic: Olenekian) of China. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 101 (for 2010), 271–84.

P. E. Olsen , D. V. Kent & J. H. Whiteside 2011. Implications of the Newark Supergroup-based astrochronology and geomagnetic polarity time scale (Newark-APTS) for the tempo and mode of the early diversification of the Dinosauria. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 101 (for 2010), 201–29.

J. Ramezani , G. D. Hoke , D. E. Fastovsky , S. A. Bowring , F. Therrien , S. I. Dworkin , S. C. Atchley & L. C. Nordt 2011. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, USA): temporal constraints on the early evolution of dinosaurs. Geological Society of America Bulletin 123 (11–12), 2142–59.

N. R. Riggs , T. M. Lehman , G. E. Gehrels & W. R. Dickinson 1996. Detrital zircon link between headwaters and terminus of the Upper Triassic Chinle–Dockum paleoriver system. Science 273 (5271), 97100.

T. Rowe 1987. Definition and diagnosis in the phylogenetic system. Systematic Zoology 36 (2), 208–11.

P. Senter 2003. New information on cranial and dental features of the Triassic archosauriform reptile Euparkeria capensis. Palaeontology 46 (3), 613–21.

P. C. Sereno 1991. Basal archosaurs: phylogenetic relationships and functional implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 2, 151.

M. R. Stocker 2010. A new taxon of phytosaur (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from the Late Triassic (Norian) Sonsela Member (Chinle Formation) in Arizona, and a critical reevaluation of Leptosuchus Case, 1922. Palaeontology 53 (5), 9971022.

M. R. Stocker 2012. A new phytosaur (Archosauriformes, Phytosauria) from the Lot's Wife beds (Sonsela Member) within the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3), 573–86.

S. W. Williston 1904. Notice of some new reptiles from the Upper Trias of Wyoming. Journal of Geology 12, 688–97.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *