Brachiopods are among the most common components of the Late Ordovician benthic faunal assemblages recorded in the Faraghan Mountains, Zagros Ranges, Iran. A total of 19 species referable to 16 genera are identified, including seven new species; namely Drabovia elegans, Hibernodonta bonehensis, Hedstroemina zakeenensis, Jezercia faraghani, Protomendacella multicostata, Tafilaltia dargazensis and Tafilaltia seyahouensis. Reported brachiopod assemblages are oligotaxic (2–3 species per assemblage) to monotaxic. The only exception is the medium diversity Aegiromena-Hedstroemina Association, with up to ten species, which occurs at the lower part of the A. nigerica Zone. Low diversity patterns were probably controlled by the palaeogeographical position of the region in high southern latitudes throughout the Ordovician. Paterula sp. and Iranospirifer sp. are the only brachiopods documented from the Silurian (Llandovery) Sarchahan Formation. This paper gives the first detailed report of shelly fossils from the Llandovery ‘hot shale’ of the Arabian margin of Gondwana. Most of the Katian genera, and many of their species, are shared with neighbouring high- to mid-latitude peri-Gondwanan margins, including Morocco, Spain, France, Sardinia and Bohemia.
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