Skip to main content Accessibility help

A palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Silurian rocks in the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh, Scotland

  • Gary Robertson (a1)

Silurian sediments up to 2500 m thick are exposed in the Pentland Hills, SW of Edinburgh. These sediments, the North Esk Group, are here sub-divided into five well-defined formations: the Reservoir Formation, Deerhope Formation, Cock Rig Formation, Wether Law Linn Formation and Henshaw Formation. The Wether Law Linn Formation is further sub-divided into three members. Based on limited palaeontological evidence, the sediments appear to be late Llandovery (crenulata Biozone) to Wenlock in age. The Silurian sediments represent a regressive sequence, passing from offshore submarine-fan turbidite facies, through shallow marine sediments, with an abundant flora and fauna, possibly a barrier complex, to terrestrial red beds of Old Red Sandstone facies. Changing faunal associations in the shallow marine sediments reflect the availability of different substrates. The regression occurred on the southern margin of the Midland Valley graben.

Hide All
Bluck, B. J. 1983. Role of the Midland Valley of Scotland in the Caledonian orogeny. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 74, 119136.
Bluck, B. J. 1984. Pre-Carboniferous history of the Midland Valley of Scotland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 75, 275295.
Brower, J. C. 1975. Silurian crinoids from the Pentland Hills, Scotland PALAEONTOLOGY 18, 631656.
Bull, E. E. 1987. Upper Llandovery dendroid graptolites from the Pentland Hills, Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 30, 117140.
Clarkson, E. N. K., Eldredge, N. & Henry, J.-L. 1977. Some Phacopina (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 20, 119142.
Clarkson, E. N. K. & Howells, Y. 1981. Upper Llandovery trilobites from the Pentland Hills, Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 24, 507536.
Cockburn, A. M. 1952. Minor intrusions of the Pentland Hills. TRANS EDINBURGH GEOL SOC 15, 8499.
Cocks, L. R. M., Holland, C. H., Richards, R. B. & Strachan, I. 1971. A correlation of Silurian rocks in the British Isles. J GEOL SOC LONDON 127, 103136.
Cocks, L. R. M. & Toghill, P. 1973. The biostratigraphy of the Silurian rocks of the Girvan District, Scotland. J GEOL SOC LONDON 129, 209243.
Dorning, K. J. 1982. Early Wenlock acritarchs from the Knockgardner and Straiton Grit Formations of Knockgardner, Ayrshire. SCOTT J GEOL 18, 267273.
Haswell, G. C. 1865. On the Silurian formation in the Pentland Hills, 148. Edinburgh: William P. Nimmo.
Hedberg, H. D. (ed.) 1976 International Stratigraphic Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Henderson, J. 1880. On recently discovered fossiliferous beds in the Silurian rocks of the Pentland Hills. TRANS EDINBURGH GEOL SOC 3, 353356.
Henderson, J. & Brown, D. J. 1870. On the Silurian rocks of the Pentland Hills. TRANS EDINBURGH GEOL SOC 1, 266272.
Howe, M. P. A. 1982. Upper Llandovery graptolites and stratigraphy of the Northern Oslo Region. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.
Howell, H. H. & Geikie, A. 1861. The geology of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, 1st Edn MEM GEOL SURV SCOTLAND.
Howell, D. G. & Normark, W. R. 1982. Submarine fans. In Scholle, & Spearing, (eds), Sandstone Depositional Environments, 365404. AAPG MEM 31, Wisconsin: George Banta Co.
Kier, P. M. 1973. A new Silurian echinoid genus from Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 16, 651663.
Kinsman, D. J. J. & Park, R. K. 1976. Algal belt and coastal sabkha evolution, Trucial coast, Persian Gulf. In Walter, M. R. (ed.), Stromatolites, 421433. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Lamont, A. 1947a. Gala-Tarannon beds in the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. GEOL MAG 84, 193208.
Lamont, A. 1947b. Gala-Tarannon beds in the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. GEOL MAG 84, 289–303, 319.
Lamont, A. 1952. Ecology and correlation of the Pentlandian—a new division of the Silurian System in Scotland. REP 18TH INT GEOL CONGR LONDON 10, 2732.
Lamont, A. 1955. New lamellibranchs from the Gutterford Burn Flagstones (Gala-Tarannon) of the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. PROC R SOC EDINBURGH 65, 271284.
Laurie, M. 1892. On some eurypterid remains from the upper Silurian rocks of the Pentland Hills. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 37, 151161.
Laurie, M. 1899. On a Silurian scorpion and some additional eurypterid remains from the Pentland Hills. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 39, 575590.
Leggett, J. K. 1980. The sedimentological evolution of a lower Palaeozoic accretionary fore-arc in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. SEDIMENTOLOGY 27, 401417.
Leggett, J. K., McKerrow, W. S. & Eales, M. H. 1979. The Southern Uplands of Scotland: A Lower Palaeozoic accretionary prism. J GEOL SOC LONDON 136, 755770.
McGiven, A. 1967. Sedimentation and provenance of post-Valentian conglomerates up to and including the basal conglomerate of the Lower Old Red Sandstone in the Southern parts of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow.
McKerrow, W. S. 1987. The Southern Uplands controversy. J GEOL SOC LONDON 144, 735736.
Mutti, E. & Ricci-Lucchi, F. 1972. Le torbiditi de U'Appenine settentrionale: introduzione al' analisi di facies. MEM SOC GEOL ITAL 11, 161199.
Mutti, E. & Ricci-Lucchi, F. 1975. Turbidite facies and facies associations. In Mutti, E., Parea, G. C., Ricci-Lucchi, F., Sagri, M., Zanzucchi, G., Ghibaude, G. & Iaccarine, S. (eds) Examples of turbidite facies and associations from selected formations of the Northern Appenines, Field trip guidebook A–11, 9th INT SEDIMENTOL CONGR NICE FRANCE, 2136.
Mykura, W. & Smith, J. D. D. 1962. In Mitchell, G. H. & Mykura, W.The geology of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, 3rd edn MEM GEOL SURV SCOTLAND 10–22.
Nitecki, M. 1971. Amphispongieae, a new tribe of Palaeozoic Dasycladaceous Algae. FIELDIANA GEOL 23, 1122.
Norford, B. S. 1973. Lower Silurian species of the trilobite Scotoharpes from Canada and Northern Greenland. BULL GEOL SURV CANADA 222, 832.
Peach, B. N. & Horne, J. 1899. The Silurian rocks of Great Britain, 1, Scotland. MEM GEOL SURV.
Robertson, G. 1985. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Silurian rocks of the Pentland Hills. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Rust, B. R. 1965. The stratigraphy and structure of the Whithorn area of Wigtownshire, Scotland. SCOTT J GEOL 1, 101133.
Siveter, D. J. 1978. The Silurian. In Bates, R. & Robinson, E. (eds) A stratigraphical index of British Ostracoda. GEOL J, SPEC ISSUE 8, 57100.
Siveter, D. J. 1980. British Silurian Beyrichiacea (Ostracoda). PALAEONTOGR SOC MONOGR 1, 176.
Tipper, J. C. 1974. The Marine Silurian of the North Esk Inlier. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Tipper, J. C. 1975. Lower Silurian animal communities—three case histories. LETHAIA 8, 287299.
Tipper, J. C. 1976. The stratigraphy of the North Esk Inlier, Midlothian. SCOTT J GEOL 12(1), 1522.
Toghill, P. 1969. Discussion of the terms “Llandovery Series” and “Valentian Series” as time divisions of the Silurian. PROC GEOL SOC LONDON 1651, 235238.
Walker, K. R. & Mutti, E. 1973. Turbidite facies and facies associations. In Turbidites and deep water sedimentation. SOC ECON PALAEONT MINER, Pacific Section, Short Course, 119–157.
Walton, E. K. 1983. Lower Palaeozoic—Structure and Palaeogeography. In Craig, G. Y. (ed.) Geology of Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
Waterston, C. D. 1962. Pagea sturrocki gen. et sp. nov., a new eurypterid from the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 5, 137148.
Waterston, C. D. 1979. Problems of functional morphology and classification in stylonurid eurypterids (Chelicerata, Merostomata), with observations on the Scottish Stylonuroidea. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 70, 251322.
Weaver, C. E. 1963. Interpretative value of heavy minerals from bentonites. J SEDIMENT PETROL 33, 343349.
Westoll, S. 1951. The vertebrate-bearing strata of Scotland. REP 18th INT GEOL CONGR II, 5–21, 26.
Ziegler, A. M. 1970. Geosynclinal development of the British Isles during the Silurian period. J GEOL 78, 445479.
Ziegler, A. M., Rickards, R. B. & McKerrow, W. S. 1974. Correlation of the Silurian rocks of the British Isles. GEOL SOC AM SPEC PAP 154.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed