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XXIV.—The Anatomy and Relations of the Eurypteridæ

  • Malcolm Laurie

Extract

Though a great deal has been written on the Eurypteridæ, and many points of their anatomy elucidated in the brilliant memoirs of Huxley and Salter, Hall, Woodward, Schmidt, &c, nevertheless many points of morphological importance remain obscure. This is perhaps to be attributed to the fact that nearly all the writers on this group have treated them rather from the systematic than the morphological standpoint. In dealing with remains so fragmentary and obscure as the majority of these fossils are, the value of some theory as to their relations among recent forms is enormous, both as suggesting points to be looked for and aiding in the interpretation of structures observed. The greater part of the work on this group was done before the arachnid relationship of Limulus was fully appreciated, and it is in the light of a possible relationship to this form, and also to the lower orders of terrestrial Arachnida, that it seemed to me to be worth while to revise the anatomy of the group. It has been necessary to include a certain amount of what is already well known in the description of the different genera, and I have taken special care to confirm, as far as possible, points which seemed to me to rest on insufficient grounds.

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page 509 note * Huxley, and Salter, , Mem. Geol. Surv., Mon. i.; Hall, , Nat. Hist, of New York, vol. iii.; Woodward, , Monograph of Merostomata. Palæontograph. Soc., 18661878; Schmidt, , Mem. Acad. Imp. St Petersb., vol. xxxi.

page 510 note * Mem. Geol. Surv., Mon. i. pl. xi. fig. iv.

page 510 note * Tr. Ed. Geol. Soc., iii.

page 513 note * Loc. cit., p. 116.

page 515 note * Pohlmann, , Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. iv.

page 515 note † Pohlmann, loc. cit.

page 515 note ‡ Grote, , Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. iii.

page 516 note * Mem. Geol. Surv., Mon. i. pl. i. fig. i.

page 516 note † Mem. Acad. St Petersb., vol. xxxi. p. 71.

page 516 note ‡ Ibid., i. pl. vii. fig. 9.

page 516 note § Ibid., pl. iv. fig. 7.

page 517 note * Loc. cit., pl. xii. fig. 1, d.

page 517 note † Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. v. pl. iii.

page 517 note ‡ Loc. cit., p. 73.

page 518 note * Loc. cit., p. 396, footnote.

page 518 note † Loc. cit., pl. iii. figs. 1 and la.

page 518 note ‡ Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvi.

page 519 note * Loc. cit., p. 131.

page 519 note † Hall, and Clarke, , Geol. Surv. New York, Palæontology, vol. vii.

page 520 note * Hall, loc. cit., 414.

page 520 note † Laurie, loc. cit.

page 520 note ‡ Peach, , Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxx.

page 520 note § Such forms as E. mansfieldi, E. mazonensis, and E. stylus, from the carboniferous rocks of Pennsylvania (Hall, Second Geol. Surv., Pennslyvania, vol. PPP), are undoubtedly true Eurypterids. E. Scabrosus (Woodward, , Geol. Mag., Dec. 3, vol. iv. p. 481) seems less certain, as the limbs are very different from the normal Eurypterid type.

page 521 note * Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvi.

page 521 note † Pohlmann, , Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat Sci., vol. iv.; and Grote, ibid., vol. iii.

page 522 note * Lankester; Packard; Woodward, &C.

page 523 note * Olenellus Callavei, Lapworth, Geol Mag., III. viii., pl. xv.

page 523 note † Geol. Mag., 1883.

page 523 note ‡ Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xxvi., 1870.

page 523 note § Billings, Palæozoic Fossils of Canada.

page 523 note ∥ Walcott, , Bul. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 1881.

page 523 note ¶ Ibid.

page 524 note * Quar. Jour. Micr. Sci., vol. xxi.

page 524 note † Lankester, and Bourne, , Quar. Jour. Micr. sci., vol. xxiii.

page 525 note * Zool. Anz., No. 386, 1892.

page 525 note † Arch, de Biol., vol. v.

page 525 note ‡ Q. J. M. S., vol. xxv.

page 526 note * Since the above was written, Mr R. I. Pocock has published a paper on the “Morphology of the Arachnida” (Ann. and Mag., vol. xi.), in which he advocates the division of the Arachnida into two sub-classes, one which he terms Ctenophora containing the Scorpiones, and the other—the Lipoctena—containing the rest of the class. This division entirely agrees with my views, but it is unfortunate that he should have chosen Ctenophora as the name of a subclass, as it is already accepted as the name for a class of the Cœlenterata.

page 527 note * Ann. and Mag., ser. 2, vol. iv., 1849.

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