Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chorus, Caspar G. 2015. Models of moral decision making: Literature review and research agenda for discrete choice analysis. Journal of Choice Modelling, Vol. 16, p. 69.



  • Jelle de Boer (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 November 2012

This paper examines a special kind of social preference, namely a preference to do one's part in a mixed-motive setting because the other party expects one to do so. I understand this expectation-based preference as a basic reactive attitude (Strawson 1974). Given this, and the fact that expectations in these circumstances are likely to be based on other people's preferences, I argue that in cooperation a special kind of equilibrium ensues, which I call a loop, with people's preferences and expectations mutually cross-referring. As with a Lewis-norm, the loop can get started in a variety of ways. It is self-sustaining in the sense that people with social preferences have sufficient reason not to deviate.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Andreoni and J. Miller 2002. Giving according to GARP: an experimental test of the consistency of preferences for altruism. Econometrica 70: 737753.

M. Bacharach , G. Guearra and D. Zizzo 2007. The self fulfilling property of trust: an experimental study. Theory and Decision 63: 349388.

P. Battigalli and M. Dufwenberg 2007. Guilt in games. American Economic Review 97: 170176.

K. Binmore 2008. Do conventions need to be common knowledge? Topoi 27: 1727.

I. Bischoff 2007. Institutional choice versus communication in social dilemmas: an experimental approach. Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organization 62: 2036.

I. Bohnet and B. Frey 1999. The sound of silence in prisoner's dilemma and dictator games. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 38: 4357.

G. Bolton and A. Ockenfels 2000. A theory of equity, reciprocity and competition. American Economic Review 90: 166193.

J. Brosig 2002. Identifying cooperative behaviour: some experimental results in a prisoner's dilemma game. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 47: 275290.

B. de Bruin 2005. Game theory in philosophy. Topoi 24: 197208.

T. Burnham , K. McCabe and V. Smith. 2000. Friend-or-foe intentionality priming in an extensive form trust game. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 43: 5773.

C. Camerer and B. Fehr 2004. Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: a guide for social scientists. In Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies, ed. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, C. Camerer, E. Fehr and H. Gintis, 5595. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

C. Camerer and E. Fehr 2006. When does ‘economic man’ dominate social behaviour? Science 311: 4752.

G. Charness and M. Rabin 2002. Understanding social preferences with simple tests. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117: 817869.

A. Colman 2003. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 26: 139198.

J. Cox 2004. How to identify trust and reciprocity. Games and Economic Behaviour 46: 260281.

J. Cox , K. Sadirai and V. Sadirai 2008. Experimental Economics 11: 124.

M. Dufwenberg and G. Kirchsteiger 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games and Economic Behaviour 47: 268298.

A. Falk , E. Fehr and U. Fischbacher 2008. Testing theories of fairness – intentions matter. Games and Economic Behaviour 62: 287303.

B. Fehr and S. Gächter 2002. Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415: 137140.

B. Fehr and K. Schmidt 1999. A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114: 817868.

J. Geanokoplos , D. Pearce and E. Stachetti 1989. Psychological games and sequential rationality. Games and Economic Behaviour 1: 6079.

J. Henrich and N. Smith. 2004. Comparative experimental evidence from Machiguenga, Mapuche, Huinca, and American populations. In Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies, ed. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, C. Camerer, E. Fehr and H. Gintis, 125167. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

J. Henrich , R. Boyd, S. Bowles, C. Camerer, E. Fehr and H. Gintis (eds.) 2004. Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

H. Kincaid 2008. Structural realism and the social sciences. Philosophy of Science 75: 720731.

D. Lewis 1969. Convention. A Philosophical Study. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

K. McCabe , M. Rigdon and V. Smith 2003. Positive reciprocity and intentions in trust games. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 52: 267275.

E. McClennen 1990. Rationality and Dynamic Choice. Foundational Explorations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

V. Pelligra 2005. Under trusting eyes: the responsive nature of trust. In Economics and Social Interaction. Accounting for Interpersonal Relations, ed. B. Gui and R. Sugden, 105124. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

P. Pettit 1996. Functional explanation and virtual selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47: 291302.

D. Ross 2008. Classical game theory, socialization and the rationalization of conventions. Topoi 27: 5772.

D. Sally 1995. Conversation and cooperation in social dilemmas: a meta-analysis of experiments from 1958 to 1992, Rationality and Society 7: 5892.

G. Sillari 2005. A logical framework for convention. Synthese 147: 379400.

G. Sillari 2008. Common knowledge and convention. Topoi 27: 2939.

V. Smith 2010. What would Adam Smith think? Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 73: 8386.

E. Sober 1983. Equilibrium explanation. Philosophical Studies 43: 201210.

R. Sugden 1989. Spontaneous order. Journal of Economic Perspectives 3: 8597.

R. Sugden 1998. Normative expectations: the simultaneous evolution of institutions and norms. In Economics, Values, and Organization, ed. A. Ben-Ner and L. Putterman, 73100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J. Weber and J. Murnighan 2008. Suckers or saviors? Consistent contributors in social dilemmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95: 13401353.

B. Wilson 2010. Social preferences aren't preferences. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 73: 7782.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Economics & Philosophy
  • ISSN: 0266-2671
  • EISSN: 1474-0028
  • URL: /core/journals/economics-and-philosophy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *