Hylodesmum H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill (Leguminosae or Fabaceae, tribe Desmodieae), based on Desmodium sect. Podocarpium Benth. (=D. subgen. Podocarpium (Benth.) H. Ohashi), is a replacement name proposed here for Podocarpium (Benth.) Y.C. Yang & P.H. Huang published in 1979 for Chinese species belonging to the genus. The name it replaces, Podocarpium (Benth.) Y.C. Yang & P.H. Huang, is a later homonym of two earlier names, Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenb. (fossil Leguminosae or Fabaceae) and Podocarpium Unger (fossil Podocarpaceae) and it is also inadmissible under Art. 20.2. New combinations in Hylodesmum are proposed for 14 species and nine infraspecific taxa. A description of the genus is given as well as brief notes on the distribution of each taxon. Shuteria longipes Franch. and Desmodium duclouxii Pamp. are newly regarded as conspecific; the correct name for these in Hylodesmum is H. longipes. Notes on typification are given for several names.