Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Military Industry versus Military-Related Firms in Socialist Hungary: Disintegration and Integration of Military Production during the 1950s and Early 1960s

  • Pál Germuska
Abstract

The article presents some new evidence concerning the conversion program in Socialist Hungary that constituted an exceptional case not only in the Socialist Bloc, but also in the early period of the Cold War. The Hungarian military industry—step by step—was reintegrated into the civil economy between 1953 and 1961. The war plants developed a dual production structure, which helped them stand the storms of the lengthy transitional period. Companies with a double profile diversified their production with a wide scale of civilian goods, new constructional and R&D departments were established. The article examines at the firm level the strategies, the changes in behaviours of the top-managers, and the consequences—what did the switch-over have for Hungarian society, to what extent contributed the increase in consumer goods to political stabilization of the system.

Copyright
References
Hide All

Books

Almquist, Peter. Red Forge: Soviet Military Industry since 1965. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Berend, Ivan T. Gazdasági Utkereses 1956–1965. A szocialista gazdaság magyarországi modelljének tortenetehez. Budapest: Magvetd Kiado, 1983.
Bystrova, Irina V. Sovetsko voenno-promyslennyj kompleks: problemy stanovlenija i razvitija, 1930–1980-e gody. Moscow: Rossijskaja Akad. Nauk, 2006.
Borhi, Lászió. Hungary in the Cold War 1945–1956. Between the United States and the Soviet Union. Budapest: CEU Press, 2004.
Dimitrov, Dimitar. The Restructuring and Conversion of the Bulgarian Defence Industry during the Transition Period. Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion, 2002.
Hanson, Philip. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy: An Economic History of the USSR from 1945. Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2003.
Honvári, jános. XX. századi magyar gazdaságtörténet. Budapest: Aula, 2006.
Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History ofEurope since 1945. New York: Penguin, 2005.
Kiss, Erika. A Hútógépgyar es Jászbrény fel évszázada. Jaszberény: Gépipari Tudomanyos Egyesület, 2003.
Kiss, Judit. The Defence Industry in East-Central Europe: Restructuring and Conversion. Solna: SIPRI, 1997.
Kiss, Judit. The Transformation of the Defense Industry in Hungary. Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion, 1999.
Kornai, Janos. The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
Kornai, Janos. Overcentralisation in Economic Administration: A Critical Analysis Based on Experience in Hungarian Light Industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Millward, Robert. Private and Public Enterprise in Europe: Energy, Telecommunications and Transport, 1830–1990. Cambridge Studies in Economic History. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Okvath, Imre. Bastya a beke frontjan. Magyar haderoes katonapolitika 1945¬1956. Budapest: Aquila, 1998.
Paczkowski, Andrzej. Fel evszazad Lengyelország tortenetebd, 1939–1989. Budapest: 1956-os Intezet, 1997.
Rainer, Janos M. Nagy Imre. Politikai eletrajz. I. kotet. Budapest: 1956-os Intezet, 1996.
Rainer, Janos M. Nagy Imre. Politikai eletrajz. II. kotet. Budapest: 1956-os Intezet, 1999.
Toninelli, Pierangelo Maria. The Rise and Fall ofState-Owned Enterprise in the Western World. Comparative Perspectives in Business History. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Barber, John, Harrison, Mark, Simonov, Nikolai, and Starkov, Boris. “The Structure and Development of the Defence-Industry Complex.” In The Soviet Defence-Industry Complex from Stalin to Khrushchev, edited by Barber, John, Harrison, Mark, 329. New York: Macmillan / London: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
Bähr, Johannes. “Oberspreewerk 1945-52.Zeitschrift fur Un-ternehmensgeschichte 39, no. 3 (1994): 145–64.
Galev, Todor. “Military-Related Technological Innovations in Bulgaria during Socialism: Beyond Ideological and Political Borders. The ARCUS Military Plant Case.” In Proceedings from the Second Plenary Conference of the Tensions of Europe Network “Technology and Rethinking European Borders”, digital reprint, CD-ROM issue.
Germuska, Pail. “A magyar hadiipar a hatvanas evek elejen.” In Mult századi hetkoznapok. TanulmányokaKadár-rendszer kialakulásának idoszakáról, edited by Rainer, Janos M., 90128. Budapest: 1956-os Intezet, 2003.
Germuska, Pail. “From Commands to Coordination: Defence Industry Cooperation within the Member-States of the Warsaw Pact, 1956–1965.” In Multina-ti nal Operati ns, Alliances, and Internati nal Military C perati n. Past and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the Partnership for Peace Consortium’s Military History Working Group, Vienna, Austria 4-8 April 2005, edited by Rush, Robert S. and Epley, William W., 101–8. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 2006.
Germuska, Pail. “A magyar hadiipar 1956-ban.” In Tanulmányok es emlekmozaikok az 56-os forradalomrol, edited by Szabo, Ferenc A., 89113. Budapest: Zrinyi Miklos Hadtudomanyi Alapítvany, 2007.
Germuska, Pail. “Military-Economic Planning in Socialist Hungary: The History of the General Organisational Department of the National Planning Office, 1948¬1971.Europe-Asia Studies 60 (july 2008): 809–30.
Kluge, Arnd. “Betriebsgeschichte in der DDR—ein Riickblick.Zeitschrift fur Unternehmensgeschichte 38 (1993): 4962.
Okvath, Imre. A magyar hadsereg haboms haditervei, 1948–1962. Hadtorténeti Kozlemenyek 119 (March 2006): 3453.
Yudanov, Andrei. “USSR: Large Enterprises—the Functional Disorder.” In: BigBusiness and the Wealth ofNations. edited by Chandler, Alfred Dupont, Amatori, Franco, and Hikino, Takashi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Zachmann, Karin. “A Socialist Consumption junction: Debating the Mechanization of Housework in East Germany, 1956–1957.Technology and Culture 43 (january 2002): 7399.
A Danuvia Szerszámgepgyár hadiipari tevekenysege. d. n. [Undated] Kezirat [Manuscript], Hadtortenelmi LeveMr, Magyar Nephadsereg (HL MN) Különgyujtémeny. [War History Archives, Special collection of the Hungarian People’s Army].
Eszakmagyarországi Vegyimuuvek 1948–1980. evi hadiipari tevekenysegenek torteneti feldolgozása, Kezirat, 1984, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Grohe, Karoly. Az Altalános GeptervezoIroda tortenete, Kezirat, 1985, HL MN Kulongyujtemeny.
Javor, Ervin. A magyar honvedelmi gazdaságpolitika es a hadiipar fejlodestortenete 1945–1980. Kezirat, 1986, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Karoly, Janosne. A speciális híradástechnika kialakulásának torteneti leírása. A hadiipari gyártás alakulása a Videotonnál. Kezirat, 1985, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
A Magyar Dolgozok Pártja III. kongresszusának rovidített jegyzkonyve. 1954. május 24–30. Budapest: Szikra, 1954.
A Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt VII. kongresszusának jegyzkonyve. 1959. november 30-december 5. Budapest: Kossuth Konyvkiado, 1960.
Nagy, Karoly. Nitrokemia Ipartelepek, Kezirat, 1984, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Posafalvi, Andrs & Potor, Bela. AHajdusági Iparmuvek hadiipari tortenete 1953–1980, Hadhazteglas. Kezirat, 1985, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Reiner, Robert. A FEG ipartortenete, 1935–1980. Kezirat, 1985. HL MN Kulongyujtemeny.
Sulyok, Zoltan. AMatravideki Femmuvek hadiipar kialakulásának, tevekenysegenek torteneti feldolgozása, 1984, Kezirat, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Szemelvenyek a Hiuttúgepgyár tortenetebd, 1984, Kezirat, HL MN Kulongyujtemeny.
Thurmer, Gyula. AMagyarNephadsereg Vezerkara Anyagtervezesi es KozgazdasUgi Csoportfonoksege tortenete. Kezirat, HL MN Különgyujtémeny.
Nagy, Tamaís. “Fordulattoíl—forradalomig. A Magyar Dolgozoík Paírtja katona-politikaíja 1948–1956.” PhD-doktori disszertaícioí [PhD thesis], Budapest, 2003.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Enterprise & Society
  • ISSN: 1467-2227
  • EISSN: 1467-2235
  • URL: /core/journals/enterprise-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed