This paper develops a bio-economic model to explore the effect on illegal hunting, wildlife conservation, and human welfare of the most common instruments of two different designs of Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) currently in existence. First, it is demonstrated that the distribution of game meat and money transfers to the local people fails if not explicitly linked to the conservation objective. Second, the analysis shows that ICDPs relying on such a link, implemented as a risk of being excluded from the project if caught in illegal hunting, may reach their goal of improved wildlife conservation and human welfare. The theoretical model is illustrated by numerical calculations using data from the Serengeti in Tanzania.
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