Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Wastewater use in crop production in peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa: impacts on health in farm households

  • ALEBEL B. WELDESILASSIE (a1), ELINE BOELEE (a2), PAY DRECHSEL (a3) and STEPHAN DABBERT (a4)
Abstract

Using stream water polluted with untreated wastewater in agriculture is controversial due to its combination of benefits and negative health impacts. Using data from a household survey, ‘wastewater’ and ‘freshwater’ farmers were analysed comparatively to examine the perceived impacts of irrigation water quality on farmers' health and to evaluate the extent of health damage. Probability of illness was estimated using the theory of utility-maximising behaviour of households subject to the conventional farm household production model, augmented by adding a health production function. Reduced model and instrumental variable probit specifications both show that perceived illness prevalence is significantly higher for household members working on wastewater irrigation farms than for those working with freshwater. Our data entails econometric complications (e.g., endogeneity of farmers' behaviour, unobserved location-specific characteristics). Ignoring these will result in underestimation of the value of policy interventions designed to reduce potential health damage of wastewater use in irrigation.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Addis Ababa Master Plan Project Office (2002), Addis Ababa Master Plan Final Report: Executive summary, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Addis Ababa City Administration Office.
Alberini, A. (1997), ‘Valuing health effects of air pollution in developing countries: the case of Taiwan’, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 34: 107126.
Case, A. and Deaton, A. (1999), ‘School inputs and educational outcomes in South Africa’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 114: 10471084.
Central Statistical Authority (2004), Welfare Monitoring Survey: Analytical Report, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Cifuentes, E., Gomez, M., Blumenthal, U., Tellez-Rojo, M.M., Romieu, I., Ruiz-Polacios, G., and Ruiz-Velazco, S. (2000), ‘Risk factors for giardia intestinal in agricultural villages practicing irrigation in Mexico’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62: 388392.
Dasgupta, P. (2004), ‘Valuing health damages from water pollution in urban Delhi, India: a health production function approach’, Environment and Development Economics 9: 83106.
Downs, T.J., Cifuentes-Garcia, E., and Suffet, I.M. (1999), ‘Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region’, Environmental Health Perspectives 107: 553561.
Drechsel, P., Graefe, S., Sonou, M., and Cofie, O.O. (2006), ‘Informal irrigation in urban West Africa: an overview’, Research Report 102, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Drechsel, P., Scott, C.A., Raschid-Sally, L., Redwood, M., and Bahri, A. (2010), Wastewater irrigation and health: Assessing and mitigating risk in low-income countries, Earthscan, London: The International Water Management Institute and the International Development Research Centre.
Drummond, M.F., O'Brien, B., Stoddart, G.L., and Torrance, G.W. (1997), Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications.
Environmental Protection Authority (2003), ‘Standards for industrial pollution control in Ethiopia’, prepared by the Federal Environmental Protection Authority and The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation under the Ecologically Sustainable Industrial Development (ESID) Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Environmental Protection Authority (2005), ‘Review of the status of Akaki river water pollution (first draft): Document prepared as part I of the Akaki river management strategic implementation plan for 2005–2010’, Federal Environmental Protection Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ersado, L. (2005), ‘Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health: theory and evidence from Ethiopia’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3494, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Gerking, S. and Stanley, L.R. (1986), ‘An economic analysis of air pollution and health: the case of St. Louis’, The Review of Economics and Statistics 68: 115121.
Grossman, M. (1972), ‘On the concept of health capital and the demand for health’, Journal of Political Economy 80: 223–55.
Habbari, K., Tifnouti, A., Bitton, G., and Mandil, A. (2000), ‘Geohelminthic infections associated with raw wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes in Beni-Mellal, Morocco’, Parasitology International 48: 249254.
Harrington, W., Krupnick, A.J., and Spofford, W.O. (1989), ‘The economic losses of a waterborne disease outbreak’, Journal of Urban Economics 25: 116137.
Hansen, L.P. (1982). ‘Large sample properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators’, Econometrica 50: 1029–54.
Hussain, I., Raschid, L., Hanjra, M.A., Marikar, F., and van der Hoek, W. (2002), ‘Wastewater use in agriculture: review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts (with an extended list of bibliographical references)’, Working Paper 37, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Jacoby, H. (1993), ‘Shadow wages and peasant family labour supply: an econometric application to the Peruvian Sierra’, Review of Economic Studies 60: 903922.
Jekel, J.F., Elmore, J.G., and Katz, D. L. (1996), Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Keraita, B., Jimenez, B., and Drechsel, P. (2008), ‘Extent and implications of agricultural reuse of untreated, partly treated and diluted wastewater in developing countries’, CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3: 15.
Maddala, G.S. (1983), Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mekonen, A. (2007), ‘Suitability assessment of Little Akaki River for irrigation’, unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Mullahy, J. and Sindelar, J. (1989), ‘Life cycle effects of alcoholism on education, earning and occupation’, Inquiry 26: 272282.
Pitt, M.M. and Rosenzweig, M R. (1985), ‘Health and nutrient consumption across and within farm households’, The Review of Economics and Statistics 67: 212223.
Pitt, M.M. and Rosenzweig, M.R. (1986), ‘Agricultural prices, food consumption, and the health and productivity of Indonesian farmers’, in Singh, I., Squire, L., and Strauss, J. (eds), Agricultural Household Models: Extensions, Applications, and Policy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 153182.
Raschid-Sally, L. and Jayakody, P. (2008), ‘Drivers and characteristics of wastewater agriculture in developing countries – results from a global assessment’, Research Report 127, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Rosenzweig, M.R. and Schultz, T.P. (1982), ‘Market opportunities, genetic endowments and intra-family resource distribution: child survival in rural India’, American Economic Review 72: 803815.
Rosenzweig, M.R. and Schultz, T.P. (1983), ‘Estimating a household production function: heterogeneity, the demand for health inputs and their effect on birth weight’, Journal of Political Economy 91: 723746.
Scott, C.A., Faruqui, N.I., and Raschid-Sally, L. (eds.) (2004) Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities, Wallingford, UK: CABI.
Shuval, H.I., Adin, A.A., Fattel, B., Rawitz, E., and Yeutiel, P. (1986), ‘Wastewater irrigation in developing countries: health effects and technical solutions’, Technical Paper No.51, World Bank, Washington D.C.
WHO (2006), ‘Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and grey water: wastewater use in agriculture, Vol.2, [Online], http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/en/ (Accessed on 29 May 2007), World Health Organization.
Wooldridge, J.M. (2002), Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environment and Development Economics
  • ISSN: 1355-770X
  • EISSN: 1469-4395
  • URL: /core/journals/environment-and-development-economics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Weldesilassie Supplementary Material
Appendix.PDF

 PDF (137 KB)
137 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed