Skip to main content
×
Home

The potential of protected areas to halt deforestation in Ecuador

  • YNTZE VAN DER HOEK (a1)
Summary
SUMMARY

Ecuador, a country with nearly unparalleled levels of biodiversity and endemism, has one of the highest deforestation rates of South America. I examined whether governmentally protected areas in Ecuador have been effective at reducing deforestation. After estimating deforestation rates from existing land cover change data for 2000 to 2008, I used a matching approach to compare the rates of forest loss inside and outside protected areas, which corrected for geographic biases in the locations of protected areas. I tested for the effects of protected area age, size and level of protection on the rate of deforestation using generalized linear models. Governmentally protected areas still experienced deforestation – with no apparent effect of age, size and level of protection – of nearly 10,000 ha per year, but deforestation rates were lower inside compared to outside protected areas. Governmental protection led to the avoidance of additional deforestation of 2600–7800 ha of natural forest per year. Actions to mitigate deforestation in Ecuador are of global importance and as such it is promising that protected areas can help diminish deforestation, although the effectiveness of Ecuador's protected areas can still be improved upon.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Yntze van der Hoek email: yntze.vanderhoek@ikiam.edu.ec
References
Hide All
Achard F., Beuchle R., Mayaux P., Stibig H.J., Bodart C., Brink A., Carboni S., Desclée B. & Donnay F. (2014) Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010. Global Change Biology 20: 25402554.
Achard F., Eva H.D., Stibig H.-J., Mayaux P., Gallego J., Richards T. & Malingreau J.-P. (2002) Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests. Science 297: 9991002.
Andam K.S., Ferraro P.J., Pfaff A., Sanchez-Azofeifa G.A. & Robalino J.A. (2008) Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 1608916094.
Angelsen A. (2010). Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 1963919644.
Arima E.Y., Barreto P., Araújo E. & Soares-Filho B. (2014) Public policies can reduce tropical deforestation: lessons and challenges from Brazil. Land Use Policy 41: 465473.
Barber C.P., Cochrane M.A., Souza C.M. & Laurance W.F. (2014) Roads, deforestation, and the mitigating effect of protected areas in the Amazon. Biological Conservation 177: 203209.
Bass M.S., Finer M., Jenkins C.N., Kreft H., Cisneros-Heredia D.F., McCracken S.F., Pitman N.C., English P.H., Swing K., Villa G. & Di Fiore A. (2010) Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park. PLoS One 5: e8767.
Brooks T.M., Mittermeier R.A., Mittermeier C.G., Da Fonseca G.A., Rylands A.B., Konstant W.R., Flick P., Pilgrim J., Oldfield S. & Magin G. (2002) Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16: 909923.
Brun C., Cook A.R., Lee J.S.H., Wich S.A., Koh L.P. & Carrasco L.R. (2015) Analysis of deforestation and protected area effectiveness in Indonesia: a comparison of Bayesian spatial models. Global Environmental Change 31: 285295.
Chazdon R.L. (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320: 14581460.
Cramer W., Bondeau A., Schaphoff S., Lucht W., Smith B. & Sitch S. (2004) Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle: impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate change and rate of deforestation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 359: 331343.
Curatola F., Obermeier G.F., Gerique W.A., López A., Sandoval M.F., Lehnert L.W., Thies B. & Bendix J. (2015) Land cover change in the Andes of Southern Ecuador – patterns and drivers. Remote Sensing 7: 25092542.
Farrow A., Larrea C., Hyman G. & Lema G. (2005) Exploring the spatial variation of food poverty in Ecuador. Food Policy 30: 510531.
Ferraro P.J., Hanauer M.M., Miteva D.A., Canavire-Bacarreza G.J., Pattanayak S.K. & Sims K.R. (2013) More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand. Environmental Research Letters 8: 2.
Fiallo E.A. & Jacobson S.K. (1995) Local communities and protected areas: attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation 22: 241249.
Finer M., Babbitt B., Novoa S., Ferrarese F., Pappalardo S.E., De Marchi M., Saucedo M. & Kumar A. (2015) Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon. Environmental Research Letters 10: 2.
Finer M., Pappalardo S.E, Ferrarese F. & Marchi M.D. (2014) High resolution satellite imagery reveals Petroamazonas violated environmental impact study by building road into Yasuní National Park [www document]. URL www.geoyasuni.org/?p=1694
Gaveau D.L., Epting J., Lyne O., Linkie M., Kumara I., Kanninen M. & Leader‐Williams N. (2009) Evaluating whether protected areas reduce tropical deforestation in Sumatra. Journal of Biogeography 36: 21652175.
Haddad N.M., Brudvig L.A., Clobert J., Davies K.F., Gonzalez A., Holt R.D., Lovejoy T.E., Sexton J.O., Austin M.P. & Collins C.D. (2015) Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth's ecosystems. Science Advances 1: e1500052.
Hansen M.C., Potapov P.V., Moore R., Hancher M., Turubanova S.A., Tyukavina A., Thau D., Stehman S.V., Goetz S.J., Loveland T.R., Kommareddy A., Egorov A., Chini L., Justice C.O. & Townshend J.R.G. (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342: 850853.
Ho D.E., Imai K., King G. & Stuart E.A. (2011) MatchIt: nonparametric preprocessing for parametric causal inference. Journal of Statistical Software 42: 128.
Holland M.B., De Koning F., Morales M., Naughton-Treves L., Robinson B.E. & Suárez L. (2014) Complex tenure and deforestation: implications for conservation incentives in the Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development 55: 2136.
Htun N. Z., Mizoue N., Kajisa T. & Yoshida S. (2009) Deforestation and forest degradation as measures of Popa Mountain Park (Myanmar) effectiveness. Environmental Conservation 36: 218224.
Instituto Geográfico Militar del Ecuador (2013) Capas de Información Geográfica Base [www document]. URL http://sni.gob.ec/coberturas
Joppa L. & Pfaff A. (2010) Reassessing the forest impacts of protection. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1185: 135149.
Joppa L.N., Loarie S.R. & Pimm S.L. (2008) On the protection of “protected areas”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 66736678.
Lamb D., Erskine P.D. & Parrotta J.A. (2005) Restoration of degraded tropical forest landscapes. Science 310: 16281632.
Laurance W.F. (1999) Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biological Conservation 91: 109117.
Lawrence D. & Vandecar K. (2015) Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture. Nature Climate Change 5: 2736.
Leisher C., Touval J., Hess S.M., Boucher T.M. & Reymondin L. (2013) Land and forest degradation inside protected areas in Latin America. Diversity 5: 779795.
Lewis S. L., Edwards D.P. & Galbraith D. (2015) Increasing human dominance of tropical forests. Science 349: 827832.
Malcolm J.R., Liu C., Neilson R.P., Hansen L. & Hannah L. (2006) Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conservation Biology 20: 538548.
Mas J.-F. (2005) Assessing protected area effectiveness using surrounding (buffer) areas environmentally similar to the target area. Environmental monitoring and assessment 105: 6980.
Mena C.F., Barbieri A.F., Walsh S.J., Erlien C.M., Holt F.L. & Bilsborrow R.E. (2006) Pressure on the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve: development and land use/cover change in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development 34: 18311849.
Messina J.P., Walsh S.J., Mena C.F. & Delamater P.L. (2006) Land tenure and deforestation patterns in the Ecuadorian Amazon: conflicts in land conservation in frontier settings. Applied Geography 26: 113128.
Ministerio del Ambiente (2012) Línea Base de Deforestación del Ecuador Continental. Quito, Ecuador: Ministerio del Ambiente.
Miranda J.J., Corral L., Blackman A., Asner G. & Lima E. (2016). Effects of protected areas on forest cover change and local communities: evidence from the Peruvian Amazon. World Development 78: 288307.
Mittermeier R.A., Myers N., Thomsen J.B., Da Fonseca G.A. & Olivieri S. (1998) Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 12: 516520.
Mosandl R., Günter S., Stimm B. & Weber M. (2008) Ecuador suffers the highest deforestation rate in South America. In: Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador, pp. 3740. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Myers N. (1988) Threatened biotas: “hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8: 187208.
Nagendra H. (2008) Do parks work? Impact of protected areas on land cover clearing. Ambio 37: 330337.
Naughton-Treves L., Holland M.B. & Brandon K. (2005) The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 219252.
Nolte C., Agrawal A., Silvius K.M. & Soares-Filho B.S. (2013) Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 49564961.
Peralvo M. & Delgado J. (2010) Metodología para la Generación del Mapa de Deforestación Histórica. Quito, Ecuador: Ministerio del Ambiente and CONDESAN.
QGIS Development Team (2015) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation [www document]. URL http://qgis.osgeo.org
R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria [www document]. URL http://www.R-project.org/
Robinson B.E., Holland M.B. & Naughton-Treves L. (2014) Does secure land tenure save forests? A meta-analysis of the relationship between land tenure and tropical deforestation. Global Environmental Change 29: 281293.
Rudel T. (2000) Organizing for sustainable development, conservation organizations and the struggle to protect tropical rain forests in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Ambio 29: 7882.
Rudel T.K., Bates D. & Machinguiashi R. (2002) A tropical forest transition? Agricultural change, out-migration, and secondary forests in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92: 87102.
Rudel T.K., Defries R., Asner G.P. & Laurance W.F. (2009) Changing drivers of deforestation and new opportunities for conservation. Conservation Biology 23: 13961405.
Russell J.R., Huang J., Anand P., Kucera K., Sandoval A.G., Dantzler K.W., Hickman D., Jee J., Kimovec F.M. & Koppstein D. (2011) Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 60766084.
Ribeiro de Castro Solar R., Barlow J., Ferreira J., Berenguer E., Lees A.C., Thomson J.R., Louzada J., Maués M., Moura N.G. & Oliveira V.H. (2015) How pervasive is biotic homogenization in human‐modified tropical forest landscapes? Ecology Letters 18: 11081118.
Sierra R. (2013) Patrones y Factores de Deforestación en el Ecuador Continental, 1990–2010. Y un Acercamiento a los Próximos 10 Años. Quito, Ecuador: Conservación Internacional Ecuador and Forest Trends.
Tapia-Armijos M.F., Homeier J., Espinosa C.I., Leuschner C. & de la Cruz M. (2015) Deforestation and forest fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s – losing a hotspot of biodiversity. PLoS One 10: e0133701.
Wells M. P. & McShane T. O. (2004) Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. Ambio 33: 513519.
Wunder S. (2001) Poverty alleviation and tropical forests – what scope for synergies? World development 29: 18171833.
Zárate K.C. (2013). Manual para la Gestión Operativa de las Áreas Protegidas de Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Ministerio del Ambiente.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 27
Total number of PDF views: 104 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 679 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 13th March 2017 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.