This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
T. Agardy , G.N. di Sciara & P. Christie (2011) Mind the gap: addressing the shortcomings of marine protected areas through large scale marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 35: 226–232.
R.E. Blyth , M.J. Kaiser , G. Edwards-Jones & P.J.B. Hart (2004) Implications of a zoned fishery management system for marine benthic communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 951–961.
L.W. Botsford , F. Micheli & A. Hastings (2003) Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S25–S31.
J.E. Byers & E.G. Noonburg (2007) Poaching, enforcement, and the efficacy of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 17: 1851–1856.
J.C. Day (2002) Zoning: lessons from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Ocean and Coastal Management 45: 139–156.
L. Fernandes , J. Day , A. Lewis , S. Slegers , B. Kerrigan , D. Breen , D. Cameron , B. Jago , J. Hall , D. Lowe , J. Innes , J. Tanzer , V. Chadwick , L. Thompson , K. Gorman , M. Simmons , B. Barnett , K. Sampson , G. De'ath , B. Mapstone , H. Marsh , H. Possingham , I. Ball , T. Ward , K. Dobbs , J. Aumend , D. Slater & K. Stapleton (2005) Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 19: 1733–1744.
K.T. Frank , N.L. Shackell & J.E. Simon (2000) An evaluation of the Emerald/Western Bank juvenile haddock closed area. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57 (4): 1023–1034.
L.A. Goodman (1961) Snowball sampling. Annals of Mathematical Statistics
R. Grafton , T. Kompas & V. Schneider (2005) The bioeconomics of marine reserves: a selected review with policy implications. Journal of Bioeconomics 7: 161–178.
P. Guidetti (2002) The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12: 619–634.
B.S. Halpern (2003) The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13: S117–S137.
J.G. Hiddink , T. Hutton , S. Jennings & M.J. Kaiser (2006) Predicting the effects of area closures and fishing effort restrictions on the production, biomass, and species richness of benthic invertebrate communities. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 822–830.
J.G. Hiddink , A.F. Johnson , R. Kingham & H. Hinz (2011) Could our fisheries be more productive? Indirect negative effects of bottom trawl fisheries on fish condition. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 1441–1449.
R. Hilborn , K. Stokes , J.J. Maguire , T. Smith , L.W. Botsford , M. Mangel , J. Orensanz , A. Parma , J. Rice , J. Bell , K.L. Cochrane , S. Garcia , S. J. Hall , G.P. Kirkwood , K. Sainsbury , G. Stefansson & C. Walters (2004) When can marine reserves improve fisheries management? Ocean and Coastal Management 47: 197–205.
D.S. Holland (2000) A bioeconomic model of marine sanctuaries on Georges Bank. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
J.W. Horwood , J.H. Nichols & S. Milligan (1998) Evaluation of closed areas for fish stock conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 893–903.
T. Hutton , S. Mardle , S. Pascoe & R.A. Clark (2004) Modelling fishing location choice within mixed fisheries: English North Sea beam trawlers in 2000 and 2001. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 1443–1452.
M.J. Kaiser (2005) Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 1194–1199.
J.P. Kritzer (2004) Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected-area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conservation Biology
B.J. Laurel & I.R. Bradbury (2006) ‘Big’ concerns with high latitude marine protected areas (MPAs): trends in connectivity and MPA size. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63: 2603–2607.
S. Monteiro , X. Vázquez & R. Long (2010) Improving fishery law enforcement in marine protected areas. Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law 1: 95–109.
M.A. Pastoors , A.D. Rijnsdorp & F.A. Van Beek (2000) Effects of a partially closed area in the North Sea (‘plaice box’) on stock development of plaice. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 1014–1022.
C. Pita , G.J. Pierce , I. Theodossiou & K. Macpherson (2011) An overview of commercial fishers’ attitudes towards marine protected areas. Hydrobiologia
C.M. Roberts (1995) Rapid buildup of fish biomass in a Caribbean marine reserve. Conservation Biology 9: 815–826.
C.M. Roberts , J.A. Bohnsack , F. Gell , J.P. Hawkins & R. Goodridge (2001) Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science 294: 1920–1923.
G.R. Russ & A.C. Alcala (1996) Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines. Marine Ecology Progress Series 132: 1–9.
S.M. Stead (2005) Changes in Scottish coastal fishing communities: understanding socio-economic dynamics to aid management, planning and policy. Ocean and Coastal Management 48: 670–692.
B. Stobart , J.A. García-Charton , C. Espejo , E. Rochel , R. Goñi , O. Reñones , A. Herrero , R. Crec'hriou , S. Polti , C. Marcos , S. Planes & A. Pérez-Ruzafa (2007) A baited underwater video technique to assess shallow-water Mediterranean fish assemblages: Methodological evaluation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 345: 158–174.
D. Whitmarsh , C. James , H. Pickering , C. Pipitone , F. Badalamenti & G. D'Anna (2002) Economic effects of fisheries exclusion zones: a Sicilian case study. Marine Resource Economics 17: 239–250.
T.J. Willis & R.C. Babcock (2000) A baited underwater video system for the determination of relative density of carnivorous reef fish. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 755–763.
T.J. Willis , R.B. Millar & R.C. Babcock (2000) Detection of spatial variability in relative density of fishes: comparison of visual census, angling, and baited underwater video. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198: 249–260.
T.J. Willis , R.B. Millar & R.C. Babcock (2003) Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 214–227.