Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Perceived Benefits of Protected Areas in the Virunga-bwindi Massif

  • Sarah Tolbert (a1) (a2), Wellard Makambo (a3), Stephen Asuma (a3), Altor Musema (a3) and Benjamin Mugabukomeye (a3)...

Summary

Despite decades of continuous research highlighting the biological success of mountain gorilla conservation in the Virunga-Bwindi Massif, there is little knowledge of whether people living near the mountain gorilla parks perceive benefits from protected areas (PAs). This paper is the first study in the region to use the sustainable livelihoods framework to understand drivers of local perceptions of PA benefits. We used a logit regression to examine the relationship between household socioeconomic characteristics and the costs and benefits that 752 men and women living near mountain gorilla PAs reported. Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) in the Virunga-Bwindi Massif have improved perceptions of mountain gorilla PAs, but they need to prioritize projects that improve human and social capital. The frustration voiced about inequitable benefit distribution highlights the need for further social equity research to ensure ICDPs, including revenue-sharing schemes, are managed transparently and equitably.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Sarah Tolbert, Email: sarah.a.tolbert@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Ahebwa, WM, van der Duim, R Sandbrook, C (2012) Tourism revenue sharing policy at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a policy arrangements approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(3): 377394.
Althor, G, McKinnon, M, Cheng, SH, Klein, C Watson, J (2016) Does the social equitability of community and incentive based conservation interventions in non-OECD countries, affect human well-being? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 5(1): 526.
Allendorf, T, Swe, KK, Oo, T, Htut, Y, Aung, M, Allendorf, K Hayek, LA et al. (2006) Community attitudes toward three PAs in Upper Myanmar (Burma). Environmental Conservation 33(4): 344352.
Baker, J, Milner-Gulland, EJ Leader-Williams, N (2011) Park gazettement and integrated conservation and development as factors in community conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conservation Biology 26, 160170.
Baral, N Heinen, JT (2007) Resources use, conservation attitudes, management intervention and park–people relations in the Western Terai landscape of Nepal. Environmental Conservation 34(1): 6472.
Bebbington, A (1999) Capitals and capabilities: a framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. World Development 27(12): 20212044.
Bennett, NJ (2016) Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology 30(3): 582592.
Blomley, T, Namara, A, McNeilage, A, Franks, P, Rainer, H, Donaldson, A Malpas, R et al. (2010) Development AND Gorillas? Assessing Fifteen Years of Integrated Conservation and Development in South-Western Uganda. London, UK: IIED.
Bush, GK, Ikirezi, M, Daconto, G, Gray, M Fawcett, K (2010) Assessing Impacts from Community Conservation Interventions around Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA).
Bragagnolo, C, Malhado, AC, Jepson, P Ladle, RJ (2016) Modeling local attitudes to PAs in developing countries. Conservation and Society 14(3): 163182.
Brockington, D (2002) Fortress Conservation: The Preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Campbell, BM, Sayer, JA Walker, B (2010) Navigating trade-offs: working for conservation and development outcomes. Ecology and Society 15(2): 16.
Davies, R Smith, W (1998) The Basic Necessities Survey: The experience of ActionAid Vietnam. Hanoi, Vietnam: ActionAid.
Davies, TE, Fazey, IRA, Cresswell, W Pettorelli, N (2013) Missing the trees for the wood: why we are failing to see success in pro-poor conservation. Animal Conservation 17(4): 303312.
Emerton, L (2001) The nature of benefits and the benefits of nature: why wildlife conservation has not economically benefited communities in Africa. In: African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, eds. D Hulme & M Murphree, pp. 208226. Oxford, UK: James Currey.
Ferraro, PJ (2002) The local costs of establishing PAs in low-income nations: Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Ecological Economics 43(2): 261275.
Ferraro, PJ (2009) Counterfactual thinking and impact evaluation in environmental policy. In: Environmental Program and Policy Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, eds. M Birnbaum & P Mickwitz, pp. 7584. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
Gautam, AP (2009) Equity and livelihoods in Nepal’s community forestry. International Journal of Social Forestry 2(2): 101122.
Gray, M, Roy, J, Vigilant, L, Fawcett, K, Basabose, A, Cranfield, M, Uwingeli, P et al. (2013) Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological conservation 158, 230238.
Harrison, M, Baker, J, Twinamatsiko, M Milner‐Gulland, EJ (2015) Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions. Conservation Biology 29(6): 16361646.
Heinen, JT Shrivastava, RJ (2009) An analysis of conservation attitudes and awareness around Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India: implications for conservation and development. Population and Environment 30(6): 261274.
Holmes, G (2007) Protection, politics and protest: understanding resistance to conservation. Conservation and Society 5, 184201.
Igoe, J (2006) Measuring the costs and benefits of conservation to local communities. Journal of Ecological Anthropology 10(1): 7277.
Infield, M Namara, A (2001) Community attitudes and behaviour towards conservation: an assessment of a community conservation programme around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Oryx 35(1): 4860.
Jones, N, McGinlay, J Dimitrakopoulos, PG (2017) Improving social impact assessment of PAs: a review of the literature and directions for future research. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 64, 17.
Karki, ST (2013) Do PAs and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management 128, 988999.
Lange, E, Woodhouse, E Milner‐Gulland, EJ (2016) Approaches used to evaluate the social impacts of PAs. Conservation Letters 9(5): 327333.
Lee, TM, Sodhi, NS Prawiradilaga, DM (2009) Determinants of local people’s attitude toward conservation and the consequential effects on illegal resource harvesting in the PAs of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Environmental Conservation 36(2): 157170.
McKinnon, M, Cheng, SH, Dupre, S, Edmond, J, Garside, R, Glew, L Holland, MB (2016) What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countries. Environmental Evidence 5(1): 58.
Munanura, IE, Backman, KF, Hallo, JC Powell, RB (2016) Perceptions of tourism revenue sharing impacts on Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda: a sustainable livelihoods framework. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 24(12): 17091726.
Molenge, T (2014) Linking great ape conservation and poverty alleviation in DRC. IIED workshop report. URL http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G03825.pdf
Oldekop, JA, Holmes, G, Harris, WE Evans, KL (2016) A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of PAs. Conservation Biology 30(1): 133141.
Persha, L Andersson, K (2014) Elite capture risk and mitigation in decentralized forest governance regimes. Global Environmental Change 24, 265276.
Plumptre, A, Kayitare, A, Rainer, H, Gray, M, Munanura, I, Barakabuye, N Asuma, S et al. (2004) The Socio-Economic Status of People Living Near PAs in the Central Albertine Rift. New York, NY, USA: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
Pimbert, MP Pretty, JN (1995) Beyond conservation ideology and the wilderness. Natural Resources Forum 19(1): 514.
Robbins, MM, Gray, M, Fawcett, KA, Nutter, FB, Uwingeli, P, Mburanumwe, I Kagoda, E et al. (2011) Extreme conservation leads to recovery of the Virunga mountain gorillas. PLoS One. 6(6): e19788.
Sandbrook, C Adams, WM (2012) Accessing the impenetrable: the nature and distribution of tourism benefits at a Ugandan National Park. Society & Natural Resources 25, 915932.
Scoones, I (1998) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis Volume 72. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
Spiteri, A Nepal, SK (2008) Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area. Environmental Management 42(3): 391401.
Tumusiime, DM Sjaastad, E (2014) Conservation and development: justice, inequality, and attitudes around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Journal of Development Studies 50(2): 204225.
Waylen, KA, McGowan, PJK Milner-Gulland, EJ (2009) Ecotourism positively affects awareness and attitudes but not conservation behaviours: a case study at Grande Riviere, Trinidad. Oryx 43(3): 343351.
Wells, M, Guggenheim, S, Wardojo, W Jepson, P (1999) Investing in Biodiversity: A Review of Indonesia’s Integrated Conservation and Development Projects. Washington, DC, USA: The World Bank.
Weber, W (1987) Ruhengeri and its resources: An environmental profile of the Ruhengeri Prefecture, Rwanda. Ruhengeri Resource Analysis and Management Project. URL https://rmportal.net/library/content/scapes/scapes-dec-imports/PN-ABD-046
Weber, W (1989) An Analysis of Value Conflicts and Convergence in the Management of Afromontane Forests in Rwanda. Madison, WI, USA: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
West, P Brockington, D (2006) An anthropological perspective on some unexpected consequences of PAs. Conservation Biology 20(3): 609616.
Wilkie, D, Wieland, M Detoeuf, D (2015) A Guide to the Modified Basic Necessities Survey: Why and How to Conduct BNS in Conservation Landscapes. New York, NY, USA: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
Winkler, R (2011) Why do ICDPs fail? The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation. Resource and Energy Economics 33, 5578.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Tolbert et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (91 KB)
91 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed