Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 164
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ciotir, Claudia and Freeland, Joanna 2016. Cryptic intercontinental dispersal, commercial retailers, and the genetic diversity of native and non-native cattails (Typha spp.) in North America. Hydrobiologia, Vol. 768, Issue. 1, p. 137.

    Fryirs, Kirstie A. Cowley, Kirsten and Hose, Grant C. 2016. Intrinsic and extrinsic controls on the geomorphic condition of upland swamps in Eastern NSW. CATENA, Vol. 137, p. 100.

    Grasset, Charlotte Abril, Gwenaël Guillard, Ludovic Delolme, Cécile and Bornette, Gudrun 2016. Carbon emission along a eutrophication gradient in temperate riverine wetlands: effect of primary productivity and plant community composition. Freshwater Biology,

    He, Jie Dupras, Jérôme and G. Poder, Thomas 2016. The value of wetlands in Quebec: a comparison between contingent valuation and choice experiment. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, p. 1.

    Kumar, K. Ch. V. Naga Demudu, G. Malini, B. Hema Rao, Kakani Nageswara and Kubo, Sumiko 2016. Geospatial Analysis of the Changing Environment of Kolleru Lake, the Largest Freshwater Wetland in India. Wetlands, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 745.

    Laguna, Celia López-Perea, Jhon J. Viñuela, Javier Florín, Máximo Feliu, Jordi Chicote, Álvaro Cirujano, Santos and Mateo, Rafael 2016. Effects of invasive fish and quality of water and sediment on macrophytes biomass, and their consequences for the waterbird community of a Mediterranean floodplain. Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 551-552, p. 513.

    Li, Zhiwei Wang, Zhaoyin and Pan, Baozhu 2016. Landscape and Ecosystem Diversity, Dynamics and Management in the Yellow River Source Zone.

    Lu, Chunyan Wang, Zongming Li, Lin Wu, Puzhou Mao, Dehua Jia, Mingming and Dong, Zhangyu 2016. Assessing the conservation effectiveness of wetland protected areas in Northeast China. Wetlands Ecology and Management, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 381.

    Manton, Michael Angelstam, Per Milberg, Per and Elbakidze, Marine 2016. Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservation in Southern Sweden as a Case Study. Sustainability, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 340.

    McIntyre, Nancy E. Drake, Joseph C. and Griffis-Kyle, Kerry L. 2016. A connectivity and wildlife management conflict in isolated desert waters. The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 80, Issue. 4, p. 655.

    Nasirian, Hassan Irvine, K. N. Sadeghi, Sayyed Mohammad Taghi Mahvi, Amir Hossein and Nazmara, Shahrokh 2016. Assessment of bed sediment metal contamination in the Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 188, Issue. 2,

    Penaluna, Brooke E. Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia Dunham, Jason B. García-Dé León, Francisco J. Gresswell, Robert E. Luna, Arturo Ruiz Taylor, Eric B. Shepard, Bradley B. Al-Chokhachy, Robert Muhlfeld, Clint C. Bestgen, Kevin R. Rogers, Kevin Escalante, Marco A. Keeley, Ernest R. Temple, Gabriel M. Williams, Jack E. Matthews, Kathleen R. Pierce, Ron Mayden, Richard L. Kovach, Ryan P. Garza, John Carlos and Fausch, Kurt D. 2016. Conservation of Native Pacific Trout Diversity in Western North America. Fisheries, Vol. 41, Issue. 6, p. 286.

    Poulin, Monique Pellerin, Stéphanie Cimon-Morin, Jérôme Lavallée, Sophie Courchesne, Geneviève and Tendland, Youri 2016. Inefficacy of wetland legislation for conserving Quebec wetlands as revealed by mapping of recent disturbances. Wetlands Ecology and Management,

    Sica, Y.V. Quintana, R.D. Radeloff, V.C. and Gavier-Pizarro, G.I. 2016. Wetland loss due to land use change in the Lower Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Science of The Total Environment,

    Trauner, Daniel Funk, Andrea Pölz, Eva-Maria Feldbacher, Eva Weigelhofer, Gabriele Reckendorfer, Walter and Hein, Thomas 2016. Integrierte gewässerökologische Modellansätze zur Beurteilung von Gewässervernetzungsvarianten am Beispiel der Unteren Lobau. Österreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft,

    Wang, Yunbiao Jiang, Haibo He, Chunguang Wang, Zhongqiang Wang, Xuefeng Sheng, Lianxi and Chen, Fuzhong 2016. Effect of paddy cultivation on nematode community in Jinchuan Wetland of Changbai Mountain area, China. Ecological Engineering,

    Zhang, Chengqi and Li, Yu 2016. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, p. 30740.

    2016. River Morphodynamics and Stream Ecology of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Aldous, Allison R. Gannett, Marshall W. Keith, Mackenzie and O’Connor, Jim 2015. Geologic and Geomorphic Controls on the Occurrence of Fens in the Oregon Cascades and Implications for Vulnerability and Conservation. Wetlands, Vol. 35, Issue. 4, p. 757.

    Beck, Wendy Haworth, Robert and Appleton, John 2015. Aboriginal resources change through time in New England upland wetlands, south-east Australia. Archaeology in Oceania, Vol. 50, p. 47.


Temperate freshwater wetlands: types, status, and threats

  • Mark M. Brinson (a1) and Ana Inés Malvárez (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2002

This review examines the status of temperate-zone freshwater wetlands and makes projections of how changes over the 2025 time horizon might affect their biodiversity. The six geographic regions addressed are temperate areas of North America, South America, northern Europe, northern Mediterranean, temperate Russia, Mongolia, north-east China, Korea and Japan, and southern Australia and New Zealand. Information from the recent technical literature, general accounts in books, and some first-hand experience provided the basis for describing major wetland types, their status and major threats. Loss of biodiversity is a consequence both of a reduction in area and deterioration in condition. The information base for either change is highly variable geographically. Many countries lack accurate inventories, and for those with inventories, classifications differ, thus making comparisons difficult. Factors responsible for losses and degradation include diversions and damming of river flows, disconnecting floodplain wetlands from flood flows, eutrophication, contamination, grazing, harvests of plants and animals, global warming, invasions of exotics, and the practices of filling, dyking and draining. In humid regions, drainage of depressions and flats has eliminated large areas of wetlands. In arid regions, irrigated agriculture directly competes with wetlands for water. Eutrophication is widespread, which, together with effects of invasive species, reduces biotic complexity. In northern Europe and the northern Mediterranean, losses have been ongoing for hundreds of years, while losses in North America accelerated during the 1950s through to the 1970s. In contrast, areas such as China appear to be on the cusp of expanding drainage projects and building impoundments that will eliminate and degrade freshwater wetlands. Generalizations and trends gleaned from this paper should be considered only as a starting point for developing world-scale data sets. One trend is that the more industrialized countries are likely to conserve their already impacted, remaining wetlands, while nations with less industrialization are now experiencing accelerated losses, and may continue to do so for the next several decades. Another observation is that countries with both protection and restoration programmes do not necessarily enjoy a net increase in area and improvement in condition. Consequently, both reductions in the rates of wetland loss and increases in the rates of restoration are needed in tandem to achieve overall improvements in wetland area and condition.

Corresponding author
Correspondence: Dr Mark M. Brinson Tel: +1 252 328 6307 Fax: +1 252 328 4178 e-mail
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *