Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Villoslada, Miguel Bunce, Robert G. H. Sepp, Kalev Jongman, Rob H. G. Metzger, Marc J. Kull, Tiiu Raet, Janar Kuusemets, Valdo Kull, Ain and Leito, Aivar 2016. A framework for habitat monitoring and climate change modelling: construction and validation of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia. Regional Environmental Change,

    Metzger, M.J. Brus, D.J. Bunce, R.G.H. Carey, P.D. Gonçalves, J. Honrado, J.P. Jongman, R.H.G. Trabucco, A. and Zomer, R. 2013. Environmental stratifications as the basis for national, European and global ecological monitoring. Ecological Indicators, Vol. 33, p. 26.

    Ortega, M. Guerra, C. Honrado, J.P. Metzger, M.J. Bunce, R.G.H. and Jongman, R.H.G. 2013. Surveillance of habitats and plant diversity indicators across a regional gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecological Indicators, Vol. 33, p. 36.

    Ortega, Marta Metzger, Marc J. Bunce, Robert G.H. Wrbka, Thomas Allard, Anna Jongman, Rob H.G. and Elena-Rosselló, Ramón 2012. The potential for integration of environmental data from regional stratifications into a European monitoring framework. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 39.

    Snelder, Ton Lehmann, Anthony Lamouroux, Nicolas Leathwick, John and Allenbach, Karin 2010. Effect of Classification Procedure on the Performance of Numerically Defined Ecological Regions. Environmental Management, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 939.

    Snelder, Ton Lehmann, Anthony Lamouroux, Nicolas Leathwick, John and Allenbach, Karin 2009. Strong Influence of Variable Treatment on the Performance of Numerically Defined Ecological Regions. Environmental Management, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 658.

    Bunce, R. G. H. Metzger, M. J. Jongman, R. H. G. Brandt, J. de Blust, G. Elena-Rossello, R. Groom, G. B. Halada, L. Hofer, G. Howard, D. C. Kovář, P. Mücher, C. A. Padoa-Schioppa, E. Paelinx, D. Palo, A. Perez-Soba, M. Ramos, I. L. Roche, P. Skånes, H. and Wrbka, T. 2008. A standardized procedure for surveillance and monitoring European habitats and provision of spatial data. Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 11.

    Snelder, Ton H. Pella, Hervé Wasson, Jean-Gabriel and Lamouroux, Nicolas 2008. Definition Procedures Have Little Effect on Performance of Environmental Classifications of Streams and Rivers. Environmental Management, Vol. 42, Issue. 5, p. 771.

    Stewart, Hope Hewitt, C.N. and Bunce, R.G.H. 2008. Assessing, mapping and quantifying the distribution of foliar biomass in Great Britain. Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 32, Issue. 9, p. 838.

    Jameson, Joanne S. and Ramsay, Paul M. 2007. Changes in high-altitude Polylepis forest cover and quality in the Cordillera de Vilcanota, Perú, 1956–2005. Biological Conservation, Vol. 138, Issue. 1-2, p. 38.

    Swetnam, Ruth D. 2007. Rural land use in England and Wales between 1930 and 1998: Mapping trajectories of change with a high resolution spatio-temporal dataset. Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 81, Issue. 1-2, p. 91.

    CORNEY, P. M. DUC, M. G. LE SMART, S. M. KIRBY, K. J. BUNCE, R. G. H. and MARRS, R. H. 2006. Relationships between the species composition of forest field-layer vegetation and environmental drivers, assessed using a national scale survey. Journal of Ecology, Vol. 94, Issue. 2, p. 383.

    Metzger, M. J. Bunce, R. G. H. Jongman, R. H. G. Mücher, C. A. and Watkins, J. W. 2005. A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe. Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 549.

    Smart, S.M. Bunce, R.G.H. Marrs, R. LeDuc, M. Firbank, L.G. Maskell, L.C. Scott, W.A. Thompson, K. and Walker, K.J. 2005. Large-scale changes in the abundance of common higher plant species across Britain between 1978, 1990 and 1998 as a consequence of human activity: Tests of hypothesised changes in trait representation. Biological Conservation, Vol. 124, Issue. 3, p. 355.

    Corney, P.M. Le Duc, M.G. Smart, S.M. Kirby, K.J. Bunce, R.G.H. and Marrs, R.H. 2004. The effect of landscape-scale environmental drivers on the vegetation composition of British woodlands. Biological Conservation, Vol. 120, Issue. 4, p. 491.


The development and scientific principles of an environmental classification for strategic ecological survey in the United Kingdom

  • J. Sheail (a1) and R.G.H. Bunce (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2003

A method of environmental classification has been applied twice to surveys of the whole of England, Scotland and Wales (the United Kingdom). Such experience is now being extended to the European continent. The paper draws on the unpublished working-papers of the relevant scientists and institutions in reconstructing both the motives and circumstances in which a methodology was developed in the UK for the assessment of the ecological resources of the wider countryside. The principles of strategic classification and subsequent sampling from defined strata were initially devised for broadleaved woodland, and first tested at a regional level. They drew on classical regression theory, with the environmental classification being the independent, and the vegetation or habitat the dependent, variable. The approach was linked to the development of efficient algorithms for analysis and classification, and more recently remote sensing and geographical information systems. Successive Countryside Surveys of the UK, carried out since 1978, have provided an objective measurement of the decline in the quality of vegetation and habitats. Such a statistically robust approach can be used to measure the rates of vegetation and habitat change at the strategic European level, and as an aid to devising appropriate rural-resources policies.

Corresponding author
Correspondence: R.G.H. Bunce, Alterra, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *