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  • Cited by 12
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Götschi, Thomas Garrard, Jan and Giles-Corti, Billie 2016. Cycling as a Part of Daily Life: A Review of Health Perspectives. Transport Reviews, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 45.

    Marshall, Wesley E. Duvall, Andrew L. and Main, Deborah S. 2016. Large-scale tactical urbanism: the Denver bike share system. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 135.

    Sanders, Rebecca L. 2016. We can all get along: The alignment of driver and bicyclist roadway design preferences in the San Francisco Bay Area. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 91, p. 120.

    Henao, Alejandro Piatkowski, Daniel Luckey, Kara S. Nordback, Krista Marshall, Wesley E. and Krizek, Kevin J. 2015. Sustainable transportation infrastructure investments and mode share changes: A 20-year background of Boulder, Colorado. Transport Policy, Vol. 37, p. 64.

    Marshall, Wesley E. 2015. Understanding the impacts of integrating New Urbanist neighborhood and street design ideals with conventional traffic engineering standards: the case of Stapleton. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 148.

    Mulvaney, Caroline A Smith, Sherie Watson, Michael C Parkin, John Coupland, Carol Miller, Philip Kendrick, Denise McClintock, Hugh and Mulvaney, Caroline A 2015. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Piatkowski, Daniel P. and Marshall, Wesley E. 2015. Not all prospective bicyclists are created equal: The role of attitudes, socio-demographics, and the built environment in bicycle commuting. Travel Behaviour and Society, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 166.

    Klassen, Jeana El-Basyouny, Karim and Islam, Md. Tazul 2014. Analyzing the severity of bicycle-motor vehicle collision using spatial mixed logit models: A City of Edmonton case study. Safety Science, Vol. 62, p. 295.

    Marshall, Wesley E. Piatkowski, Daniel P. and Garrick, Norman W. 2014. Community design, street networks, and public health. Journal of Transport & Health, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 326.

    Marshall, Wesley E. 2014. Parking Issues and Policies.

    Wei, Feng and Lovegrove, Gordon 2013. An empirical tool to evaluate the safety of cyclists: Community based, macro-level collision prediction models using negative binomial regression. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 61, p. 129.

    Leonard, Sarah Spotswood, Fiona and Tapp, Alan 2012. Overcoming the self‐image incongruency of non‐cyclists. Journal of Social Marketing, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 23.


RESEARCH ARTICLE: Evidence on Why Bike-Friendly Cities Are Safer for All Road Users

  • Wesley E. Marshall (a1) and Norman W. Garrick (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 06 April 2011

Biking is increasingly being recognized as a highly sustainable form of transportation. Consequently, a growing number of American cities have seen tremendous growth in bicycle travel, in part because many cities are also investing resources into improving bicycling infrastructure. Aside from the environmental advantages, there is now growing evidence to suggest that cities with higher bicycling rates also have better road safety records. This study attempts to better understand this phenomenon of lower fatality rates in bike-oriented cities by examining 11 years of road safety data (1997–2007) from 24 California cities. The analysis included accounting for crashes across all severity levels, as well as for three classes of road users: vehicle occupants, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Additionally, we looked at issues of street and street network design to help determine the role that these features might play in affecting both bicycling rates and road safety outcomes. Overall, cities with a high bicycling rate among the population generally show a much lower risk of fatal crashes for all road users when compared to the other cities in our database. The fact that this pattern of low fatality risk is consistent for all classes of road users strongly suggests that the crashes in cities with a high bicycling rate are occurring at lower speeds. This agrees with the finding that street network density was one of the most notable differences found between the safer and less safe cities. Our data suggest that improving the streets and street networks to better accommodate bicycles may lead to a self-reinforcing cycle that can help enhance overall safety for all road users.

Environmental Practice 13:16–27 (2011)

Corresponding author
Wesley E. Marshall, PhD, PE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, 1200 Larimer Street, Campus Box 113, Denver, CO 80217-3364; (phone) 303-352-3741; (fax) 303-556-2368; (e-mail)
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R. Ewing , and R. Cervero . 2001. Travel and the Built Environment: A Synthesis. Transportation Research Record 1780:87114.

R. Ewing , and E. Dumbaugh . 2009. The Built Environment and Traffic Safety: A Review of Empirical Evidence. Journal of Planning Literature 23(4):347367.

P.L. Jacobsen 2003. Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safety Walking and Bicycling. Injury Prevention 9(3):205209.

W. Marshall , and N. Garrick . 2010. Considering the Role of the Street Network in Road Safety: A Case Study of 24 California Cities. Urban Design International Journal 15(3):133147.

J. Pucher , and R. Buehler . 2008. Cycling for Everyone: Lessons from Europe. Transportation Research Record 2074:5865.

R.A. Retting , S.A. Ferguson , and A.T. McCartt . 2003. A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian–Motor Vehicle Crashes. American Journal of Public Health 93(9):14561463.

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Environmental Practice
  • ISSN: 1466-0466
  • EISSN: 1466-0474
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