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A beef-associated outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in The Netherlands with implications for national and international policy


A ten-fold increase in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cases in The Netherlands during September–November 2005 prompted an outbreak investigation. A population-based matched case-control study included 56 cases and 100 controls. Risk factors for infection were consumption of a pre-processed raw beef product (odds ratio 4·2, 95% confidence interval 1·5–12·0) and of food from mobile caterers (odds ratio 4·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1–22·1). Bacterial molecular typing established a link with another DT104 outbreak in Denmark caused by beef from a third European country. The incriminated beef was traced in The Netherlands and sampling yielded DT104 of the outbreak-associated molecular type. We concluded that this outbreak was caused by imported contaminated beef. Consumers should be informed about presence of raw meat in pre-processed food products. Optimal utilization of international networks and testing and traceability of foodstuffs has the potential to prevent foodborne infections.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr M. Kivi, Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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