Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 29
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ali, Mohammad You, Young Ae Sur, Dipika Kanungo, Suman Kim, Deok Ryun Deen, Jacqueline Lopez, Anna Lena Wierzba, Thomas F. Bhattacharya, Sujit K. and Clemens, John D. 2016. Validity of the estimates of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness derived from the test-negative design. Vaccine, Vol. 34, Issue. 4, p. 479.

    Solano, Rubén Crespo, Inma Fernández, María Isabel Valero, Carles Álvarez, María Isabel Godoy, Pere Caylà, Joan A. and Domínguez, Àngela 2016. Underdetection and underreporting of pertussis in children attended in primary health care centers: Do surveillance systems require improvement?. American Journal of Infection Control,

    Campbell, Helen Amirthalingam, Gayatri Fry, Norman K. Litt, David Harrison, Timothy G. Wagner, Karen Crowcroft, Natasha S. and Miller, Elizabeth 2014. Oral Fluid Testing for Pertussis, England and Wales, June 2007–August 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 968.

    Park, Sang Hyoung Yang, Suk-Kyun Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Jong Wook Yang, Dong-Hoon Jung, Kee Wook Kim, Kyung-Jo Ye, Byong Duk Byeon, Jeong-Sik Myung, Seung-Jae and Kim, Jin-Ho 2014. Efficacy of Hepatitis A Vaccination and Factors Impacting on Seroconversion in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Sheridan, Sarah L Frith, Katie Snelling, Thomas L Grimwood, Keith McIntyre, Peter B and Lambert, Stephen B 2014. Waning vaccine immunity in teenagers primed with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine: recent epidemiology. Expert Review of Vaccines, Vol. 13, Issue. 9, p. 1081.

    Edwards, Kathryn M. and Decker, Michael D. 2013. Vaccines.

    Tafuri, Silvio Gallone, Maria Serena Martinelli, Domenico Prato, Rosa Chironna, Maria and Germinario, Cinzia 2013. Report of a pertussis outbreak in a low coverage booster vaccination group of otherwise healthy children in Italy. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Campbell, Helen Amirthalingam, Gayatri Andrews, Nick Fry, Norman K. George, Robert C. Harrison, Timothy G. and Miller, Elizabeth 2012. Accelerating Control of Pertussis in England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 38.

    Lavine, Jennie S. Bjørnstad, Ottar N. de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben and Storsaeter, Jann 2012. Short-lived immunity against pertussis, age-specific routes of transmission, and the utility of a teenage booster vaccine. Vaccine, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 544.

    ROZENBAUM, M. H. De VRIES, R. LE, H. H. and POSTMA, M. J. 2012. Modelling the impact of extended vaccination strategies on the epidemiology of pertussis. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 140, Issue. 08, p. 1503.

    OKADA, K. OHASHI, Y. MATSUO, F. UNO, S. SOH, M. and NISHIMA, S. 2009. Effectiveness of an acellular pertussis vaccine in Japanese children during a non-epidemic period: a matched case-control study. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 137, Issue. 01, p. 124.

    Lee, Grace M. Riffelmann, Marion and Wirsing von Konig, Carl Heinz 2008. Cost-effectiveness of adult pertussis vaccination in Germany. Vaccine, Vol. 26, Issue. 29-30, p. 3673.

    Lee, Grace M. Murphy, Trudy V. Lett, Susan Cortese, Margaret M. Kretsinger, Katrina Schauer, Stephanie and Lieu, Tracy A. 2007. Cost Effectiveness of Pertussis Vaccination in Adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 32, Issue. 3, p. 186.

    Crowcroft, Natasha S and Pebody, Richard G 2006. Recent developments in pertussis. The Lancet, Vol. 367, Issue. 9526, p. 1926.

    Southern, Jo Andrews, Nick Burrage, Moya and Miller, Elizabeth 2005. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of combined acellular pertussis/tetanus/low dose diphtheria vaccines given as a booster to UK teenagers. Vaccine, Vol. 23, Issue. 29, p. 3829.

    Wendelboe, Aaron M. Van Rie, Annelies Salmaso, Stefania and Englund, Janet A. 2005. Duration of Immunity Against Pertussis After Natural Infection or Vaccination. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 24, Issue. Supplement, p. S58.

    Nardone, A Pebody, R.G Maple, P.A.C Andrews, N Gay, N.J and Miller, E 2004. Sero-epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in England and Wales. Vaccine, Vol. 22, Issue. 9-10, p. 1314.

    Van Rie, Annelies and Hethcote, Herbert W 2004. Adolescent and adult pertussis vaccination: computer simulations of five new strategies. Vaccine, Vol. 22, Issue. 23-24, p. 3154.

    Brusaferro, Silvio Toscani, P. Barbieri, M. Gallo, T. and Barbone, F. 2003. Analisi costo-beneficio delle campagne vaccinali per la pertosse in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. PharmacoEconomics Italian Research Articles, Vol. 5, Issue. S1, p. 13.

    Crowcroft, NS Stein, C Duclos, P and Birmingham, M 2003. How best to estimate the global burden of pertussis?. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, Issue. 7, p. 413.


Age-specific efficacy of pertussis vaccine during epidemic and non-epidemic periods

  • M. E. B. Ramsay (a1), C. P. Farrington (a1) and E. Miller (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

A national survey was conducted of 3150 notified cases of whooping cough in order to determine age-specific pertussis vaccine efficacy by the ‘screening’ method. The cases were collected over two periods, one just prior to the start and one at the first peak of the whooping cough epidemic of 1989–90. Vaccination status was determined by a postal questionnaire to the reporting doctor and clinical data were also collected to provide efficacy estimates according to standardized case definitions. Overall, observed vaccine efficacy was high but differed between epidemic (87%) and non-epidemic (93%) periods (P = 0·03). Efficacy estimates were generally higher for typical or severe cases than for children with an atypical illness. Vaccine efficacy declined with age (P < 0·01) but estimates remained high up to the age of 8 years. This study will provide baseline data for comparison with efficacy observed from similar studies of children immunized at an accelerated schedule and from phase III studies of acellular pertussis vaccines performed elsewhere.

Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence: Dr M. Ramsay, Department of Public Health Medicine, St Mary's Hospital Medical School, Imperial College, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.MEB Ramsay , MJ Corbel , K Redhead , LAE Ashworth , NT Begg . Persistence of antibody after accelerated immunisation with diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine. BMJ 1991; 302: 1489–91.

3.R Booy , SJM Aitken , S Taylor , Immunogenicity of combined diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age versus 3, 5 and 9 months of age. Lancet 1992; 339: 507–10.

5.WC Blackwelder , J Storsaeter , P Olin , H Hallander . Acellular pertussis vaccines. Efficacy and evaluation of clinical case definitions. Amer J Dis Child 1991; 145: 16.

7.D Jenkinson . Duration of effectiveness of pertussis vaccine: evidence from a 10-year community study. BMJ 1988; 296: 612–14.

8.TM Pollock , E Miller , J Lobb . Severity of whooping cough in England before and after the decline in pertussis immunisation. Arch Dis Child 1984; 59: 162–5.

11.NT Begg , ON Gill , JM White . COVER (Cover of Vaccination Evaluated Rapidly): description of the England and Wales scheme. Public Health 1989; 103: 81–9.

13.IM Onorato , SGF Wassilak . Laboratory diagnosis of pertussis: the state of the art. Paediatr Infect Dis J 1987; 6: 145–51.

15.PR Grob , MJ Crowder , JF Robbins . Effect of vaccination on the severity and dissemination of whooping cough. BMJ 1981; 282: 1925–8.

16. Swansea Research Unit of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Effect of a low pertussis vaccination uptake on a large community. BMJ 1981; 282: 2336.

18.SR Palmer . Vaccine efficacy and control measures in pertussis. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66: 854–7.

20.PEM Fine , JA Clarkson . Reflections of the efficacy of pertussis vaccines. Rev Infect Dis 1987; 9: 866–83.

21.CP Farrington . The measurement and interpretation of age specific vaccine efficacy. Int J of Epidemiol 1992; 21: 1014–20.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *