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Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom

  • R. G. PEBODY (a1), N. ANDREWS (a1), D. M. FLEMING (a2), J. McMENAMIN (a3), S. COTTRELL (a4), B. SMYTH (a5), H. DURNALL (a2), C. ROBERTSON (a3) (a6) (a7), W. CARMAN (a8), J. ELLIS (a9), P. SEBASTIAN-PILLAI (a9), M. ZAMBON (a9), C. KEARNS (a5), C. MOORE (a4), D. RH. THOMAS (a4) and J. M. WATSON (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 13 June 2012

An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr R. G. Pebody, Health Protection Services – Colindale, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK. (Email:
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