Eighty-one adult patients with Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) bacteraemia treated at a university hospital from 1996 to 2004 were evaluated. Multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was used to characterize risk factors for primary bacteraemia and mycotic aneurysm and to determine the association of clinical characteristics of patients based on ciprofloxacin susceptibility of the causative organism. The incidence per 100000 discharges was 0·76 in 1996 and 3·9 in 2004. The overall rate of ciprofloxacin resistance among these isolates was 59% (87 isolates) and the annual rate increased with time from 0% prior to 2000 to 80% in 2004. Among these patients, 48 (59%) had primary bacteraemia and 13 (16%) had secondary bacteraemia with mycotic aneurysm. Seventy (86%) patients had fever at presentation, 22 (27%) developed shock during hospitalization, and eight (10%) died of S. Choleraesuis bacteraemia. Patients with immunocompromised conditions had a higher risk of developing primary bacteraemia (OR 18·442, P<0·001). Hypertension (OR 15·434, P=0·002) and male gender (OR 7·422, P=0·039) were associated with mycotic aneurysm. Patients with mycotic aneurysm were more frequently infected with ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (P=0·028) and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates were also more frequently associated with recurrent infection than ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (P=0·038). The incidence of S. Choleraesuis bacteraemia has increased in the past 8 years, and this increase is associated with the upsurge of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates.
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