Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 46
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Munot, Khushboo and Kotler, Donald P. 2016. Small Intestinal Infections. Current Gastroenterology Reports, Vol. 18, Issue. 6,


    DeMessie, Bluyé 2015. Water Challenges and Solutions on a Global Scale.


    Barker, S.F. O'Toole, J. Sinclair, M.I. Keywood, M. and Leder, K. 2016. Endotoxin health risk associated with high pressure cleaning using reclaimed water. Microbial Risk Analysis,


    Ashbolt, Nicholas J. 2015. Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water and Human Health from Community Water Systems. Current Environmental Health Reports, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 95.


    Falkinham, Joseph Pruden, Amy and Edwards, Marc 2015. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water. Pathogens, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 373.


    Potera, Carol 2015. Plumbing Pathogens: A Fixture in Hospitals and Homes. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 123, Issue. 8, p. A217.


    Marras, Theodore K. Prevots, D. Rebecca Jamieson, Frances B. and Winthrop, Kevin L. 2015. Variable agreement among experts regardingMycobacterium aviumcomplex lung disease. Respirology, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 348.


    Ashbolt, Nicholas 2015. Environmental (Saprozoic) Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management. Pathogens, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 390.


    Falkinham, Joseph 2015. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 5, p. 4533.


    McLeod, Rima Van Tubbergen, Christine Montoya, José G. and Petersen, Eskild 2014. Toxoplasma Gondii.


    Boppe, Inès Bédard, Emilie Taillandier, Catherine Lecellier, Daphné Nantel-Gauvin, Marc-André Villion, Manuela Laferrière, Céline and Prévost, Michèle 2016. Investigative approach to improve hot water system hydraulics through temperature monitoring to reduce building environmental quality hazard associated to Legionella. Building and Environment, Vol. 108, p. 230.


    Lu, J. Struewing, I. Yelton, S. and Ashbolt, N. 2015. Molecular survey of occurrence and quantity ofLegionellaspp.,Mycobacteriumspp.,Pseudomonas aeruginosaand amoeba hosts in municipal drinking water storage tank sediments. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 119, Issue. 1, p. 278.


    Palos Ladeiro, M. Aubert, D. Villena, I. Geffard, A. and Bigot, A. 2014. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): Interest for water biomonitoring. Water Research, Vol. 48, p. 148.


    Springston, John P. and Yocavitch, Liana 2016. Existence and Control ofLegionellaBacteria in Building Water Systems: A Review. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, p. 00.


    Buse, Helen Y. Donohue, Maura J. and Ashbolt, Nicholas J. 2013. Hartmannella vermiformis Inhibition of Legionella pneumophila Cultivability. Microbial Ecology, Vol. 66, Issue. 3, p. 715.


    Strollo, Sara E. Adjemian, Jennifer Adjemian, Michael K. and Prevots, D. Rebecca 2015. The Burden of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in the United States. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Vol. 12, Issue. 10, p. 1458.


    Bartley, Paul B. Ben Zakour, Nouri L. Stanton-Cook, Mitchell Muguli, Raghuram Prado, Luis Garnys, Vyt Taylor, Katherine Barnett, Timothy C. Pinna, Glen Robson, Jennifer Paterson, David L. Walker, Mark J. Schembri, Mark A. and Beatson, Scott A. 2016. Hospital-wide Eradication of a NosocomialLegionella pneumophilaSerogroup 1 Outbreak. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 62, Issue. 3, p. 273.


    Berjeaud, Jean-Marc Chevalier, Sylvie Schlusselhuber, Margot Portier, Emilie Loiseau, Clémence Aucher, Willy Lesouhaitier, Olivier and Verdon, Julien 2016. Legionella pneumophila: The Paradox of a Highly Sensitive Opportunistic Waterborne Pathogen Able to Persist in the Environment. Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 7,


    Xue, Xiaobo Schoen, Mary E. Ma, Xin (Cissy) Hawkins, Troy R. Ashbolt, Nicholas J. Cashdollar, Jennifer and Garland, Jay 2015. Critical insights for a sustainability framework to address integrated community water services: Technical metrics and approaches. Water Research, Vol. 77, p. 155.


    Donohue, Maura J. Mistry, Jatin H. Donohue, Joyce M. O’Connell, Katharine King, Dawn Byran, Jules Covert, Terry and Pfaller, Stacy 2015. Increased Frequency of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Detection at Potable Water Taps within the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, Issue. 10, p. 6127.


    ×

Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water

  • S. A. COLLIER (a1) (a2), L. J. STOCKMAN (a3), L. A. HICKS (a3), L. E. GARRISON (a3), F. J. ZHOU (a3) and M. J. BEACH (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268811002858
  • Published online: 11 January 2012
Abstract
SUMMARY

Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: S. A. Collier, MPH, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F-22, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (Email: scollier@cdc.gov)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3.D Cutler , G Miller . The role of public health improvements in health advances: the twentieth-century United States. Demography 2005; 42: 122.

6.M Messner , An approach for developing a national estimate of waterborne disease due to drinking water and a national estimate model application. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 201240.

7.JM Colford Jr., A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 7188.

8.BM Diederen . Legionella spp. and Legionnaires' disease. Journal of Infection 2008; 56: 112.

9.JO Falkinham 3rd. Surrounded by mycobacteria: nontuberculous mycobacteria in the human environment. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2009; 107: 356367.

10.RM Thomson . Changing epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 15761583.

11.MV Brinks , Health risk of bathing in Southern California coastal waters. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 2008; 63: 123135.

12.E Scallan , Foodborne illness acquired in the United States – major pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011; 17: 7–15.

14.BJ Marston , Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Results of a population-based active surveillance study in Ohio. The Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997; 157: 17091718.

18.PS Corso , Cost of illness in the 1993 waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 426431.

19.RH Dwight , Estimating the economic burden from illnesses associated with recreational coastal water pollution – a case study in Orange County, California. Journal of Environmental Management 2005; 76: 95–103.

21.GJ Ballarino , Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections: antibiotic treatment and associated costs. Respiratory Medicine 2009; 103: 14481455.

23.RT Trevejo , Epidemiology of salmonellosis in California, 1990–1999: morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization costs. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 157: 4857.

24.HY Lau , NJ Ashbolt . The role of biofilms and protozoa in Legionella pathogenesis: implications for drinking water. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2009; 107: 368378.

25.MJ Vaerewijck , Mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems: ecology and significance for human health. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 2005; 29: 911934.

28.IA van Asperen , Risk of otitis externa after swimming in recreational fresh water lakes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. British Medical Journal 1995; 311: 14071410.

29.F Gagnon , Risk of giardiasis associated with water supply in an endemic context. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2006; 16: 349359.

30.SL Roy , Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004; 42: 29442951.

32.PS Mead , Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 607625.

33.DM Denno , Tri-county comprehensive assessment of risk factors for sporadic reportable bacterial enteric infection in children. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 467476.

34.CR Friedman , Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38: S285–296.

38.HD Kassenborg , Farm visits and undercooked hamburgers as major risk factors for sporadic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection: data from a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38: S271–278.

39.TW Hennessy , Egg consumption is the principal risk factor for sporadic Salmonella serotype Heidelberg infections: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38: S237–243.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: