Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe

  • J. H. HUMPHREY (a1), K. J. NATHOO (a2), J. W. HARGROVE (a3), P. J. ILIFF (a2), K. E. MUTASA (a3), L. H. MOULTON (a1), H. CHIDAWANYIKA (a3), L. C. MALABA (a2), L. S. ZIJENAH (a2), P. ZVANDASARA (a2), R. NTOZINI (a3), C. D. ZUNGUZA (a4) and B. J. WARD (a5)...
Abstract
SUMMARY

Studies of antenatal women form the predominant source of data on HIV-1 prevalence in Africa. Identifying factors associated with prevalent HIV is important in targeting diagnostic services and care. Between November 1997 and January 2000, 14 110 postnatal women from Harare, Zimbabwe were tested by ELISAs reactive to both HIV-1 and HIV-2; a subset of positive samples was confirmed with assays specific for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Baseline characteristics were elicited and modelled to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalences were 32·0% (95% CI 31·2–32·8) and 1·3% (95% CI 1·1–1·5), respectively; 4% of HIV-1-positive and 99% of HIV-2-positive women were co-infected. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 0% among 14-year-olds to >45% among women aged 29–31 years, then fell to <20% among those aged >40 years. In multivariate analyses, prevalence increased with parity, was lower in married women than in single women, divorcees and widows, and higher in women with the lowest incomes and those professing no religion. Adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased during 1998 and decreased during 1999. Age modified the effects of parity, home ownership and parental education. Among older women, prevalence was greater for women who were not homeowners. Among younger women, prevalence increased with parity and low parental education. None of these factors distinguished women co-infected with HIV-2 from those infected with HIV-1 alone. Prevalent HIV-1 infection is associated with financial insecurity and weak psychosocial support. The ZVITAMBO study apparently spanned the peak of the HIV-1 epidemic among reproductive women in Harare.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr J. H. Humphrey, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room 2043, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. (Email: jhumphrey@zvitambo.co.zw)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. B Zaba , T Boerma , R White . Monitoring the AIDS epidemic using HIV prevalence data among young women attending antenatal clinics: prospects and problems. AIDS 2000; 14: 16331645.

9. JH Humphrey , HIV incidence among postpartum women in Zimbabwe: risk factors and the effect of vitamin A supplementation. AIDS 2006; 20: 14371446.

10. PJ Iliff , Early exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission and increases HIV-free survival. AIDS 2005; 19: 699708.

12. B Rodes , Viral response to antiretroviral therapy in a patient co infected with HIV Type 1 and Type 2. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 41: e19e21.

13. WJ Graham , M.-L Newell . Seizing the opportunity: collaborative initiatives to reduce HIV and maternal mortality. Lancet 1999; 353: 836839.

14. M Temmerman , Infection with HIV as a risk factor for adverse obstetrical outcome. AIDS 1990; 4: 10871093.

19. S Gregson , HIV decline associated with behaviour change in Eastern Zimbabwe. Science 2006; 311: 664666.

20. AD Sarr , HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infection: lack of HIV-2 provirus correlates with low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. AIDS 1998; 12: 131137.

25. RH Gray , Population-based study of fertility in women with HIV-1 infection in Uganda. Lancet 1998; 351: 98103.

26. N Terceira , The contribution of HIV to fertility decline in rural Zimbabwe, 1980–2000. Population Studies 2003; 57: 149164.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×