This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2.A Melegaro , The current burden of pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. Journal of Infection 2006; 52: 37–48.
3.MJ Fine , Efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in adults. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 154: 2666–2677.
4.A Melegaro , WJ Edmunds . The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Part I. Efficacy of PPV in the elderly: a comparison of meta-analyses. European Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 19: 353–363.
5.SA Moberley , Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008; Issue 1, Art. No. CD000422.
6.A Huss , Efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in adults: a meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2009;180: 48–58.
7.T Maruyama , Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2010; 340: c1004.
8.LA Jackson , Effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine 2003; 348: 1747–1755.
9.ED Shapiro , The protective efficacy of polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325: 1453–1460.
10.D Foster , Invasive pneumococcal disease: epidemiology in children and adults prior to implementation of the conjugate vaccine in the Oxfordshire region, England. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2008; 57: 480–487.
11.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Invasive pneumococcal disease in children 5 years after conjugate vaccine introduction-eight states, 1998–2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008; 57: 144–148.
12.CA Lexau , Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 294: 2043–2051.
13.CG Whitney , Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. New England Journal Medicine 2003; 348: 1737–1746.
14.GD Rodenburg , Effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2 years after its introduction, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 816–823.
17.D Foster , Reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease following implementation of the conjugate vaccine in the Oxfordshire region, England. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2011; 60: 91–97.
18.WP Hausdorff , Which pneumococcal serogroups cause the most invasive disease: implications for conjugate vaccine formulation and use, part 1. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000; 30: 100–121.
20.APHO and Department of Health. Health profile 2010, Kingston upon Hull. (© Crown Copyright 2010.)
21.APHO and Department of Health. Health profile 2010, East Riding of Yorkshire. (© Crown Copyright 2010.)
23.WA Orenstein , Field evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 1985; 63: 1055–1068.
26.TV Perneger . What's wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal 1998; 316: 1236–1238.
27.CL Trotter , Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the pre-conjugate vaccine era: England and Wales, 1996–2006. Journal of Infection 2009; 60: 200–208.
29.CL Trotter , Increasing hospital admissions for pneumonia, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 14; 727–733.
32.CC Grant , Invasive pneumococcal disease in Oxford, 1985–2001: a retrospective case series. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003; 88: 712–714.
34.ZB Harboe , Pneumococcal serotypes and mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study. PLoS Medicine 2009; 6: e1000081.
35.WP Hausdorff , DR Feikin , KP Klugman . Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2005; 5: 83–93.
36.MT Dransfield , Superior immune response to protein-conjugate versus free pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009; 180: 499–505.
37.D Goldblatt , The immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine versus 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adults aged 50–80 years. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009; 49: 1318–1325.