Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Measles immunity and response to revaccination among secondary school children in Cumbria

  • N. Calvert (a1), F. Cutts (a2), R. Irving (a1), D. Brown (a3), J. Marsh (a1) and E. Miller (a4)...
Abstract
Summary

The prevalence of antibody to measles virus in 759 children aged 11–18 years attending a secondary school in Cumbria was measured using a salivary IgG antibody capture assay. Serum IgG antibody levels were measured using a plaque reduction neutralization assay in subjects whose saliva was antibody negative. Vaccination histories were obtained from the child health computer and general practice records. A total of 662 pupils (87 % of those tested) had detectable measles-specific IgG in saliva. Of the remaining 97, 82 provided blood samples and 29 had serum neutralizing antibody levels above 200 mlU/ml. After adjusting for non-participation rates, the proportion considered non-immune (no IgG in saliva and ≤ 200 mlU/ml in serum) was 9 % overall, ranging from 6 % in vaccinated children to 20 % in unvaccinated children. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine was given to 50 children of whom 38 provided post-vaccination serum and 32 saliva samples. Thirty (79 %) had a fourfold or greater rise in serum neutralizing antibody and 28 (88 %) developed IgG antibody in saliva. Half of the children considered non-immune by antibody testing would have been overlooked in a selective vaccination programme targeted at those without a history of prior vaccination. A programme targeted at all school children should substantially reduce the proportion non-immune since a primary or booster response was achieved in three quarters of previously vaccinated children with low antibody levels and in all unvaccinated children. While it is feasible to screen a school-sized population for immunity to measles relatively quickly using a salivary IgG assay, a simple inexpensive field assay would need to be developed before salivary screening and selective vaccination could substitute for universal vaccination of populations at risk of measles outbreaks. The salivary IgG assay provided a sensitive measure of a booster response to vaccination.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.H Carter , D Gorman . Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: time for a two stage policy? BMJ 1992; 304: 637.

3.A Hill . Measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. BMJ 1992; 304: 779.

10.RT Chen , LE Markowitz , P Albrecht , Measles antibody: reevaluation of protective titers. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 1036–42.

11.K Perry , DWG Brown , JV Parry , Detection of measles, mumps and rubella antibodies in saliva using antibody capture radioimmunoassays. J Med Virol 1993; 40: 235–40.

12.P Albrecht , K Herrman , GR Burns . Role of virus strain in conventional and enhanced measles plaque neutralization test. J Virol Methods 1981; 3: 251–60.

13.OA Sinitsyna , OE Khudaverdyan , LL Steinberg , Further attenuated measles vaccine: virus passages affect virus surface protein expression, immunogenicity and histopathology pattern in vivo. Res Virol 1990; 141: 517–31.

14.T Forsey , AB Heath , PD Minor . The 1st international standard for anti-measles serum. Biologicals 1991; 19: 237–41.

15.B Samb , P Aaby , HC Whittle , Serologic status and measles attack rates among vaccinated and unvacci-nated children in rural Senegal. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995; 14: 203–9.

16.IR Pedersen , CH Mordhurst , G Glickmann , H von Magnus . Subclinical measles infection in vaccinated seropositive individuals in Greenland. Vaccine 1989; 7: 345–8.

17.LE Markowitz , PA Albrecht , WA Orenstein , SM Lett . TJ Pugliese , D Farrell . Persistence of measles antibody after revaccination. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 205–8.

18.B Christenson , M Bottiger . Measles antibody: comparison of long-term vaccination litres, early vaccination titres, and naturally acquired immunity to and booster effects on the measles virus. Vaccine 1994; 12: 129–33.

19.ML Cohn , ED Robinson , M Faerber , Measles vaccine failures: lack of sustained measles-specific immunoglobulin G responses in revaccinated adolescents and young adults. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13: 34–8.

20.FT Cutts , A Bartoloni , P Guglielmetti , F Gil , D Brown . Bandinelli ML Bianchi , M Roselli . Prevalence of measles anlibody among children under 15 years of age in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: implications for vaccination strategies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995; 89: 119–22.

21.T Thieme , S Piacentin , S Davidson , K Steingart . Determination of measles mumps and rubella immunization stalus using oral fluid samples. JAMA 1994; 272: 219–21.

22.DW Brown , ME Ramsay , AF Richards , E Miller . Salivary diagnosis of measles: a study of notified cases in the United Kingdom, 1991–3. BMJ 1994; 308: 1015–7.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×