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The virology, epidemiology, and clinical impact of West Nile virus: a decade of advancements in research since its introduction into the Western Hemisphere

  • K. O. MURRAY (a1), C. WALKER (a1) and E. GOULD (a2) (a3)
Abstract
SUMMARY

West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the USA. After the widespread surge of virus activity across the USA, research has flourished, and our knowledge base has significantly expanded over the past 10 years since WNV was first recognized in New York City. This article provides a review of the virology of WNV, history, epidemiology, clinical features, pathology of infection, the innate and adaptive immune response, host risk factors for developing severe disease, clinical sequelae following severe disease, chronic infection, and the future of prevention.

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*Author for correspondence: Dr K. O. Murray, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Center for Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA. (Email: Kristy.O.Murray@uth.tmc.edu)
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

66.RB Tesh , SY Xiao . Persistence of West Nile Virus infection in vertebrates. In: MS Diamond , ed. West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection. New York: Springer, 2009, pp. 361377.

67.V Siddharthan , Persistent West Nile virus associated with a neurological sequela in hamsters identified by motor unit number estimation. Journal of Virology. Published online: 18 February 2009. doi:10.1128/JVI.00017-09.

76.A. Anwar West Nile premembrane-envelope genetic vaccine encoded as a chimera containing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of a lysosome-associated membrane protein: increased cellular concentration of the transgene product, targeting to the MHC II compartment, and enhanced neutralizing antibody response. Virology 2005; 332: 6677.

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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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