Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Water use and acute diarrhoeal illness in children in a United States metropolitan area

  • M. H. GORELICK (a1) (a2) (a3), S. L. McLELLAN (a4), D. WAGNER (a1) (a3) and J. KLEIN (a2)
Abstract
SUMMARY

We examined the association between water exposures and acute diarrhoeal illness (ADI) in children under non-outbreak conditions in a major US metropolitan area. We used a nested case-control study of children seen in an urban/suburban emergency department. Cases were those seen for a complaint of diarrhoea, while controls were age-matched children with a non-gastrointestinal complaint. Parents of subjects completed a validated water-use survey. Stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated for the three main water effects: water source [surface vs. ground (well)], drinking-water type (tap vs. bottled), and use of water filters. Of 2472 subjects, 45% drank mostly or only bottled water. Well-water use was associated with increased odds of ADI compared to surface water [aOR 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01–1·87]. Use of bottled water did not affect the odds of ADI in well-water users, but increased the odds of ADI for surface-water users (aOR 1·27, 95% CI 1·02–1·57). We conclude that well-water use and bottled-water use are associated with increased odds of ADI in children.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: M. H. Gorelick, MD, MSCE, Paediatric Emergency Medicine Children's Corporate Center, Suite 550, 999 N. 92nd St, Milwaukee, WI53226, USA. (Email: mgorelic@mcw.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.SJ Pont , Trends in healthcare usage attributable to diarrhoea, 1995–2004. Journal of Pediatrics 2008; 153: 777782.

4.JE Tate , Burden of acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations and emergency department visits in US children that is potentially preventable by rotavirus vaccination: a probe study using the now-withdrawn rotashield vaccine. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 744749.

5.M Messner , An approach for developing a national estimate of waterborne disease due to drinking water and a national estimate model application. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 201240.

6.JM Colford , A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 7188.

7.KA Reynolds , KD Mena , CP Gerba . Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States. Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 2008; 192: 117158.

9.RL Redman , ED visits for diarrhoeal illness increased after release of undertreated sewage. Pediatrics 2007; 120: e1472–1475.

10.WR MacKenzie , A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 331: 161167.

12.MH Gorelick , D Wagner , SL McLellan . Development and validation of a self-administered questionnaire to measure water exposures in children. Ambulatory Pediatrics 2008; 8: 388391.

13.Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 15991603.

14.RL Calderon , GF Craun . Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community intervention studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 8999.

15.GF Craun , RL Calderon . Observational epidemiologic studies of endemic waterborne risks: cohort, case-control, time-series, and ecologic studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 101119.


17.MA Borchardt , NL Haas , RJ Hunt . Vulnerability of drinking-water wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to enteric-virus contamination from surface water contributions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70: 59375946.

20.SC Tinker , Drinking water residence time in distribution networks and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in Metro Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of Water and Health 2009; 7: 332343.

21.JA Lalumandier , LW Ayers . Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled vs. tap water. Archives of Family Medicine 2000; 9: 246250.

22.C Beuret , Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: one-year monitoring of three brands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68: 19251931.


24.FJ Frost , How clean must our drinking water be: the importance of protective immunity. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 191: 809814.

25.J Schwartz , R Levin , K Hodge . Drinking water turbidity and paediatric hospital use for gastrointestinal illness in Philadelphia. Epidemiology 1994; 8: 615620.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: