Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Belongia, Edward A Simpson, Melissa D King, Jennifer P Sundaram, Maria E Kelley, Nicholas S Osterholm, Michael T and McLean, Huong Q 2016. Variable influenza vaccine effectiveness by subtype: a systematic review and meta-analysis of test-negative design studies. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 16, Issue. 8, p. 942.

    Remschmidt, Cornelius Rieck, Thorsten Bödeker, Birte and Wichmann, Ole 2015. Application of the screening method to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness among the elderly in Germany. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Blommaert, Adriaan Bilcke, Joke Vandendijck, Yannick Hanquet, Germaine Hens, Niel and Beutels, Philippe 2014. Cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women, health care workers and persons with underlying illnesses in Belgium. Vaccine, Vol. 32, Issue. 46, p. 6075.

    Darvishian, Maryam Bijlsma, Maarten J Hak, Eelko and van den Heuvel, Edwin R 2014. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in community-dwelling elderly people: a meta-analysis of test-negative design case-control studies. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 12, p. 1228.

    Dawood, Fatimah S. Prapasiri, Prabda Areerat, Peera Ruayajin, Asadang Chittaganpitch, Malinee Muangchana, Charung Baggett, Henry C. and Olsen, Sonja J. 2014. Effectiveness of the 2010 and 2011 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines against hospitalization with influenza-associated acute respiratory infection among Thai adults aged ≥50 years. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 463.

    Debin, Marion Colizza, Vittoria Blanchon, Thierry Hanslik, Thomas Turbelin, Clement and Falchi, Alessandra 2014. Effectiveness of 2012–2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 536.

    Sullivan, Sheena G Feng, Shuo and Cowling, Benjamin J 2014. Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review. Expert Review of Vaccines, Vol. 13, Issue. 12, p. 1571.

    Falchi, Alessandra Souty, Cecile Grisoni, Marie-Lise Mosnier, Anne Hanslik, Thomas Daviaud, Isabelle Varesi, Laurent Kerneis, Solen Carrat, Fabrice and Blanchon, Thierry 2013. Field seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, Vol. 9, Issue. 11, p. 2453.


Effectiveness of trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against laboratory-confirmed influenza infection in persons with medically attended influenza-like illness in Bavaria, Germany, 2010/2011 season

  • H. ENGLUND (a1) (a2), H. CAMPE (a1) and W. HAUTMANN (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 26 October 2012

We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines, respectively, against laboratory-confirmed influenza infections in patients with influenza-like illness who visited physicians participating in the Bayern Influenza Sentinel in Bavaria, Germany during 2010/2011. Swab specimens were analysed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3) and B by PCR. VE was estimated using the test-negative case-control study design and logistic regression. In total, 1866 patients (790 cases, 1076 controls) were included. The VE of trivalent vaccines administered in season 2010/2011 against laboratory-confirmed infection with any influenza virus, adjusted for age group, sex, chronic illness and week of arrival of the specimen, was 67·8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·2–82·9)]. The adjusted VE of monovalent influenza vaccines administered in season 2009/2010 against laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in 2010/2011 was 38·6% (95% CI −70·0 to 77·8). This is the first VE study conducted in Bavaria. We concluded that the trivalent influenza vaccines were effective in our study population.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Ms H. Englund, Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, Veterinärstraße 2, 85762 Oberschleißheim, Germany. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

7.EW Orenstein , Methodologic issues regarding the use of three observational study designs to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness. International Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 36: 623631.

10.JK Yin , Impacts on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection from cross-protection of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines: systematic review and meta-analyses. Vaccine 2012; 30: 32093222.

15.M Valenciano , Study designs for timely estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness using European sentinel practitioner networks. Vaccine 2010; 28: 73817388.

16.S Jiménez-Jorge , Effectiveness of the 2010–11 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine in Spain: cycEVA study. Vaccine 2012; 30: 35953602.

19.PR Blank , Trends in influenza vaccination coverage rates in Germany over six seasons from 2001/02 to 2006/07. Medizinische Klinik (Munich) 2008; 103: 761768.

21.MM Böhmer , Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in Germany 2007/2008 and 2008/2009: results from a national health update survey. Vaccine 2011; 29: 44924498.

23.JM Langley , Randomized, multicenter trial of a single dose of AS03-adjuvanted or unadjuvanted H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine in children 6 months to <9 years of age: safety and immunogenicity. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2012; 31: 848858.

24.C Nassim , Identification of antigen and adjuvant doses resulting in optimal immunogenicity and antibody persistence up to 1 year after immunization with a pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children 3 to <9 years of age. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2012; 31: e59e65.

25.A Saitoh , Safety and persistence of immunological response 6 months after intramuscular vaccination with an AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine: an open-label, randomized trial in Japanese children aged 6 months to 17 years. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2012; 8: 749758.

26.WT Walker , H1N1 antibody persistence 1 year after immunization with an adjuvanted or whole-virion pandemic vaccine and immunogenicity and reactogenicity of subsequent seasonal influenza vaccine: a multicenter follow-on study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012; 54: 661669.

27.M Ferguson , Safety and long-term humoral immune response in adults after vaccination with an H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine with or without AS03 adjuvant. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012; 205: 733744.

28.H Ikematsu , Characterization and long-term persistence of immune response following two doses of an AS03A-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy Japanese adults. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2012; 8: 260266.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *