Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in Legionnaires' disease, 1980–1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2002; 35: 1039–1046.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for travel-associated Legionnaires disease – United States, 2005–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
2007; 66: 1261–1263.
Fraser DW, et al.
Legionnaires' disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine
1977; 297: 1189–1197.
Benin AL, et al.
An outbreak of travel-associated Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever: the need for enhanced surveillance of travel-associated legionellosis in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2002; 185: 237–243.
Rowbotham TJ. Legionellosis associated with ships: 1977 to 1997. Communicable Disease and Public Health
1998; 1: 146–151.
Jernigan DB, et al.
Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers exposed to a contaminated whirlpool spa. Lancet
1996; 347: 494–499.
Guerrero IC, Filippone C. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease in a community hospital – a clue to a larger epidemic. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
1996; 17: 177–178.
Benkel DH, et al.
Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a display whirlpool spa. International Journal of Epidemiology
2000; 29: 1092–1098.
De Schrijver K, et al.
An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease among visitors to a fair in Belgium in 1999. Public Health
2003; 117: 117–124.
Vogt RL, et al.
Legionnaire's disease and a whirlpool-spa. Annals of Internal Medicine
1987; 107: 596.
Den Boer JW, et al.
A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at a flower show, the Netherlands, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2002; 8: 37–43.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Recommendations and Reports)
1997; 46: 20.
Marston BJ, Lipman HB, Breiman RF. Surveillance for Legionnaires' disease. Risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine
1994; 154: 2417–2422.
Kleinbaum DG. Logistic Regression: A Self-Learning Text, 2nd edn.
New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Procedures for the recovery of Legionella from the environment. Atlanta, GA, USA: Department of Health and Human Services, 1994, pp. 1–13.
Gaia V, et al.
Consensus sequence-based scheme for epidemiological typing of clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila
. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2005; 43: 2047–2052.
Ratzow S, et al.
Addition of neuA, the gene encoding N-acylneuraminate cytidylyl transferase, increases the discriminatory ability of the consensus sequence-based scheme for typing Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2007; 45: 1965–1968.
Cowgill KD, et al.
Recurrence of legionnaires disease at a hotel in the United States Virgin Islands over a 20-year period. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2005; 40: 1205–1207.
Kool JL, et al.
More than 10 years of unrecognized nosocomial transmission of legionnaires' disease among transplant patients. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
1998; 19: 898–904.
Mouchtouri V, et al.
Risk factors for contamination of hotel water distribution systems by Legionella species. Appled Environmental Microbiology
2007; 73: 1489–1492.
Borella P, et al.
Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels. Appled Environmental Microbiology
2005; 71: 5805–5813.
Lucas C, et al.
Accuracy and precision of Legionella isolation by US laboratories in the ELITE program pilot study. Water Research
2011; 45: 4428–4436.
Kozak NA, et al.
Distribution of lag-1 alleles and sequence-based types among Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 clinical and environmental isolates in the United States. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2009; 47: 2525–2535.
Mandell LA, et al.
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2007; 44 (Suppl. 2): S27–72.
Plouffe JF, et al.
Reevaluation of the definition of Legionnaires' disease: use of the urinary antigen assay. Community Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Clinical Infectious Diseases
1995; 20: 1286–1291.
Harrison TG, et al. Typing of Legionella pneumophila and its role in elucidating the epidemiology of Legionnaires' disease. In: Cianciotto NP
et al. , eds.
Legionella: State of the Art 30 Years after its Recognition
. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2005.