1.Betts, RF. Influenza virus. In: Mandell, GL, Bennett, JE, Dolin, R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995, pp. 1546–1567.
2.Heymann, DL. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. Washington: American Publich Health Association, 2004.
3.La Rosa, AM, Whimbey, E. Respiratory viruses. In: Cohen, J, Powderly, WG, eds. Infectious Diseases, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Mosby, 2004, pp. 2067–2082.
4.Bergsaker, M, Hungnes, O, Iversen, B. Vaccination against influenza–why, for whom and with which vaccine? [in Norwegian]. Tidsskrift for Norsk Laegeforening 2006; 126: 2814–2817.
5.Schanzer, DL, et al. Influenza-attributable deaths, Canada 1990–1999. Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 1109–1116.
6.Dushoff, J, et al. Mortality due to influenza in the United States – an annualized regression approach using multiple-cause mortality data. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 163: 181–187.
7.Linde, A, Ekdahl, K, Lindbäck, J. News on influenza and RS in Sweden [in Swedish]. Smittskydd 1999; 5: 110–111.
8.Thompson, WW, et al. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory synctial virus in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 289: 179–86.
9.Wong, C-M, et al. Influenza-associated mortality in Hong Kong. Clinical Infections Diseases 2004; 39: 1611–1617.
10.Zucs, P, et al. Influenza associated excess mortality in Germany, 1985–2001. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005; 2: 6.
11.Dushoff, J. Assessing influenza-related mortality: comment on Zucs et al. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005; 2: 7.
12.Simonsen, L, et al. Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005; 165: 265–272.
13.Simonsen, L, et al. The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: introducing a severity index. American Journal of Public Health 1997; 87: 1944–1950.
14.Simonsen, L, et al. Estimating deaths due to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 289: 2499–2500.
15.Kyncl, J, et al. A study of excess mortality during influenza epidemics in the Czech Republic, 1982–2000. Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 20: 365–371.
16.Mamelund, SE, Iversen, BG. Morbidity and mortality in pandemic influenza in Norway [in Norwegian]. Tidsskrift for Norsk Laegeforening 2000; 120: 360–363.
17.R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Comput-ing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2008.
18.Anderson, RM, May, RM. Infectious Diseases of Humans – Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
19.Diekmann, O, Heesterbeek, JA. Mathematical Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. Model Building, Analysis and Interpretation. Chichester: Wiley, 2000.
20.Chowell, G, Nishiura, H, Bettencourt, LMA. Comparative estimation of the repro-duction number for pandemic influenza from daily case notification data. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 2007; 4: 155–66.
21.Gran, JM, et al. Growth rates in epidemic models: application to a model for HIV/AIDS progression. Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27: 4817–34.
22.Favier, C, et al. Early determination of the reproductive number for vector-borne diseases: the case of dengue in Brazil. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2006; 11: 332–40.
23.Zeileis, A, et al. strucchange: an R package for testing for structural change in linear regression models. Journal of Statistical Software 2002; 7: 1–38.
24.Chowell, G, et al. The basic reproductive number of Ebola and the effects of public health measures: the cases of Congo and Uganda, Journal of Theoretical Biology 2004; 229: 119–126.
25.Wearing, HJ, Rohani, P, Keeling, MJ. Appropriate models for the management of infectious diseases. PLoS Medicine 2005; 2: 621–627.
26.Longini, IM, et al. Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 159: 623–633.
27.Gani, R, et al. Potential impact of antiviral drug use during influenza pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 1355–1362.
28.Viboud, C, et al. Transmissibility and mortality impact of epidemic and pandemic influenza, with emphasis on the unusually deadly 1951 epidemic. Vaccine 2006; 24: 6701–6707.
29.Laake, K, Sverre, JM. Winter excess mortality: a comparison between Norway and England plus Wales. Age and Aging 1996; 25: 343–348.