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Influenza and pneumonia hospitalizations in Ontario: a time-series analysis

  • ERIC J. CRIGHTON (a1), RAHIM MOINEDDIN (a2) (a3), MUHAMMAD MAMDANI (a4) (a5) (a6) and ROSS E. G. UPSHUR (a1) (a2) (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 November 2004

A comprehensive examination of gender and age-specific influenza and pneumonia hospitalization seasonality is currently lacking. Using population-based data for Ontario, Canada between April 1988 and March 2002 (n=339803 hospitalizations), findings from this study revealed clear seasonality [Fisher's Kappa (FK) test=68·64, P<0·001; Bartlett's Kolmogorov–Smirnov (BKS) test=0·68, P<0·001] with consistent summer troughs and winter peaks for both sexes and all ages combined. The very young (both sexes 0–4 years) demonstrated the strongest seasonality (Rautoreg2=0·97) and females aged 10–19 years, the weakest (Rautoreg2=0·59). Gender differences were most pronounced in the oldest age groups (80+ years) where females had an average annualized peak rate of 250/100000 compared to 400/100000 for males. These findings can contribute to more population-specific prevention strategies and effective resource and service allocation based on seasonal and specific population demands.

Corresponding author
E. Crighton, Primary Care Research Unit, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, no. E-349, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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